Infection and inflammation from wound necrosis pose a direct threat to life.

Gangrene and tissue necrosis are other names for necrosis. It is a condition that needs immediate medical attention because, in the acute stage, shock, organ failure, and even death can result from it. Necrosis: What is it? What information about tissue necrosis is valuable?

Necrosis, also known as gangrene, is a state of tissue or organ death that has permanent effects on the human body. Dead tissue is dry and dark in color, which inhibits the growth of fresh, healthy cells there.

Infection and inflammation from wound necrosis pose a direct threat to life. There are many different parts of the body that can experience necrosis, such as the skin, fingers, feet, legs, and nails.

How does necrosis occur?

Necrosis is caused by insufficient flow of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the site. It can be caused by chemical or mechanical trauma, gangrene, or infection with microorganisms. Factors that can cause tissue death include ischemia, hypoxia, toxins, viruses and radiation. Necrosis can affect both organs and tissues, such as leg necrosis, mouth necrosis, foot necrosis, fingertip necrosis, lung necrosis, stomach necrosis, or penile necrosis.

Types of necrosis

Clot necrosis

The most common type of tissue death caused by ischemia and infarction is called coagulation necrosis. Nonsecretory cells die, the organ’s tissues condense, the volume of the affected part of the organ goes down, and that part of the organ stops working.

Melt necrosis

Hypoxia, viral hepatitis, and local fungal and bacterial infections all contribute to liquefaction necrosis, a type of necrosis that affects the central nervous system. Eventually, phagocytes or neutrophils remove it from the body in the form of yellow goo (pus). With necrosis, the wound has more fluid coming out of it, and the necrosis at the bottom of the wound is liquid.

Caseous necrosis

Diseases like syphilis, tuberculosis, Hodgkin’s disease, and some types of cancer cause caseous necrosis, which is the breakdown of tissue. It is made up of dissolved cells or pieces with an uneven structure, which destroys all the tissue.

Enzymatic necrosis

Pancreatic enzymes that leak out and digest the parenchyma are what cause enzymatic necrosis of adipose tissue. This causes chalky white areas, inflammatory infiltrates, and bleeding.


Gangrene is a necrosis caused by infection with Clostridium bacteria. Dry necrosis causes ischemic tissue to become desiccated and mummified, and is often diagnosed in people with diabetes. Moist necrosis develops in tissues that are warm and moist, and also have contact with the external environment. Gas gangrene is the result of gas-producing bacteria.

Fibrinous necrosis

Immune responses that result in an accumulation of antigen-antibody complexes in the arterial wall—a fibrinoid—cause fibrnous necrosis.

Symptoms of necrosis

Skin changes are the obvious sign of necrosis, but it’s also possible for the condition to cause swelling, pain, and itchiness as it progresses. In the final stage, the damaged area frequently experiences a loss of sensation. Necrosis can also cause an increase in body temperature, burning, and oozing from the wounds that result from it.

Treatment of necrosis

Due to its specific symptoms, necrosis is hard to diagnose, but extra tests can help choose the right antibiotic. Necrosis can be treated in different ways, depending on how sick the patient is and how bad the infection is. Necrosis must be removed from the wound and its edges, and surgery and drugs must be used to reduce inflammation, stop bacteria from growing, and help the tissue heal. It is also possible to use an ointment for skin necrosis and a specialized dressing for necrosis.


Necrosis: prevention

Prevention of necrosis is based on avoiding factors that may contribute to the occurrence of necrosis, such as low and high temperatures, prolonged pressure or radiation. Regular preventive examinations and monitoring of cholesterol in the blood are also important. All wounds should be properly secured and in the case of difficult healing, consult a doctor.

Risk of necrosis

Necrosis is more likely in people with certain diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and circulatory system disorders. Elderly, obese, immunocompromised, and high cholesterol levels should be monitored.


4th Professional Medical Student. Karachi Medical and Dental College.

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