Hemorrhoids symptoms, causes and treatments

Hemorrhoids are nodules that form around the anus and regulate the passage of stool and gas. They have the potential to cause bleeding and pain. Suppositories, ointments, and treatments are used to treat them. Surgery is sometimes required.

Hemorrhoids are anatomical vascular structures of the anus that each of us possesses. They are known medically as varicose veins of the rectal plexus. The nodules, which take the form of blood-filled pads, regulate the excretion of stool and gas. Hemorrhoids caused by the disease are considered embarrassing, even though it is estimated that they affect every second Pole.

When hemorrhoids stretch too far and fill with blood, they become inflamed in both the varicose veins and the anal tissues. Bowel movements or even sitting can result in painful ailments. These issues are also known as hemorrhoidal diseases.

The basic symptoms of hemorrhoids are:

  • anal itching,
  • pain when passing stool,
  • feeling of incomplete defecation,
  • rectal bleeding ,
  • anal burning,
  • pain when sitting.

There are several stages of development of hemorrhoidal disease:

  • first degree hemorrhoids  – visible only in the anoscope, i.e. when examining the anal canal, they do not go outside,
  • second degree hemorrhoids  – may fall out during defecation, but spontaneously return to the anal canal,
  • third degree hemorrhoids  – occur outside the anus and can be removed manually,
  • Grade IV hemorrhoids  – remain permanently outside the anus and cannot be led away.

Hemorrhoid thrombosis is caused by blood collecting in a lump and forming a clot, which is not dangerous, but can cause a sharp, sudden, and severe pain within the hemorrhoid.

Contrary to popular belief, hemorrhoids do not depend on age, but on our lifestyle and what we eat. Here are the basic causes of hemorrhoids:

  • sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise,
  • obesity,
  • pregnancy and related hormonal changes,
  • some professions and activities: cycling, horse riding, driving, office worker (long-term sitting),
  • a diet low in fiber and fluids
  • frequent  diarrhea  or  constipation ,
  • excessive pressure on the stool,
  • abuse of laxatives,
  • chronic circulatory failure,
  • birth,
  • anal sex.

Hemorrhoids treatment

See a doctor if symptoms do not improve after 7 days or worsen. Treatment depends on the severity of the hemorrhoids, with smaller hemorrhoids requiring medical consultation and removal under local anesthesia. Larger hemorrhoids carry a risk of infection, so it is important not to underestimate them.

Hemorrhoid medications, ointments, and suppositories

Hemorrhoids can be treated with creams, suppositories, and ointments, which may contain diosmin, lidocaine, zinc oxide, poplar buds, marigold, chestnut, or mountain arnica extract, or hydrocortisone.

Treatments for hemorrhoids

When hemorrhoids are advanced or do not respond to symptomatic treatment, surgical procedures are used as a last resort. Hemorrhoids can be treated with a variety of methods, including:

Rubber banding (i.e. Barron’s method)

The most popular method is to put a rubber band on an enlarged nodule, cutting off its blood supply and resulting in its necrosis. It is painless, takes 10 minutes and does not require special preparation.

Laser removal

Laser hemorrhoid removal involves irradiating the nodule with a laser beam, which can cost several thousand zlotys.

Ligation (DGHAL or Moringa method)

It is a procedure in which small blood vessels supplying hemorrhoids are ligated, causing the swelling to go away. The procedure takes about 40 minutes and allows for a quick return to normal activities.


It entails injecting a substance directly into the varicose vein, which causes the vessel walls to close and the nodule to shrink.


It is a type of ablation, which is the deliberate destruction of tissues in a bloodless manner using very low temperatures, resulting in local necrosis and nodule disappearance. This method is rarely used as a primary treatment for hemorrhoids, but rather as a supplement.

The effectiveness of the above methods depends on the severity of the hemorrhoidal disease and should be discussed with a specialist.

Author: DoctorMaryam.org

4th Professional Medical Student. Karachi Medical and Dental College.

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