1. Acidification of the body
When glucose cannot provide energy, the body begins to produce it by burning fat. Acid-forming ketone bodies are one of the byproducts of their combustion. When their number rapidly increases, we have ketoacidosis. This condition causes a variety of unpleasant symptoms (nausea, vomiting, headaches, and malaise), and, in severe cases, can result in loss of consciousness, coma, and even death.
The most common causes of hypoglycemia, or a drop in blood glucose below normal, are incorrect medication dosages or noncompliance with the diabetic diet. Hypoglycemia is characterized by fatigue, anxiety, and excessive sweating. In severe cases, it can result in a diabetic coma and even death.
3. Damage to blood vessels
When blood glucose levels stay high for a long time, blood vessels get hurt. Capillaries and small blood vessels (microangiopathies), as well as medium and large arteries can be hurt by these problems (macroangiopathies). A number of complications that can happen to people with diabetes are directly caused by microangiopathies and macroangiopathies.
4. Vision problems
High levels of sugar hurt the tiny blood vessels in the retina, which is the thin membrane that receives visual signals. This change is called diabetic retinopathy, and it causes vision problems (foggy vision, spots) that get worse over time, cataracts, and even total loss of vision.
5. Kidney problems
Diabetes can also cause damage to the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter the blood. These changes are called diabetic nephropathy, and they help cause kidney failure to happen over time. In the later stages of diabetic nephropathy, you may need dialysis or even a kidney transplant.
6. Nerve damage
Microangiopathy can result in neuropathy, or damage to the nerve fibers. Patients with diabetic neuropathy often feel like their hands and feet are burning, itching, and numb. Most nights, these symptoms get worse. Neuropathies can affect large nerves in the later stages of the disease, which can lead to heart problems, digestive problems, or even impotence.
7. Diabetic foot syndrome
When blood vessels are damaged, blood flow to the feet gets worse. This, along with the tendency to form blood clots, leads to tissue hypoxia. This makes necrotic changes more likely to happen. Also, nerve damage changes the way you feel things, so cuts and wounds don’t hurt as much as they normally would.
8. Heart diseases
Macroangiopathies caused by diabetes lead to the development of atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries, which bring blood to the heart. Because of these changes, the blood flow through the arteries gets worse, which can lead to ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction.
As atherosclerosis gets worse, the blood vessels that bring blood to the brain may also get narrower. If this organ doesn’t get enough blood, it can cause paralysis and stroke.