Home-grown plants may help reduce cancer risks

Sydney: Planting plants in homes can help reduce your risk of developing cancer, according to a study.

Researchers from the University of Technology Sydney in Australia, in collaboration with a company called Embius, found that home plants can clear toxic vapors, including cancer-causing particles, from the building.

In the first study of its kind, the ability of plants to purify gasoline vapor was tested. This evaporation is one of the main causes of toxic compounds in buildings around the world.

The plants studied had cleared 97 percent of the harmful vapors from the air in just eight hours.

According to the World Health Organization, indoor air pollution caused 3.2 million premature deaths in 2020.

The inhalation of gasoline vapor can cause inflammation, headache and nausea in the lungs. Prolonged exposure to these vapours is associated with an increased risk of cancer, asthma and other chronic diseases.

University researchers claim that most people spend 90 percent of their time indoors, offices or schools, so improving air quality is important.

According to the researchers, there are garages with many job sites, homes and even schools, or these buildings are along a busy road or near a petrol station, as a result of which people in these buildings are exposed to petrol-related chemicals on a daily basis.

For the research, they built nine green walls. It is a vertical structure to which different plants and or greenery are attached.


What is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). It is therefore a malignant disease of the bone marrow’s blood-forming cells that causes an uncontrolled expansion of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood, particularly mature and maturing granulocytes (progenitor cells). The quantity of blood platelets is frequently raised at the start of the disease (thrombocytosis).

Learn more about CML :  It is a cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells

Which factors lead to CML?

Chemical compounds such as benzene and radioactive radiation from Hiroshima and Nagasaki are risk factors. Both of these variables can cause bone marrow blood stem cells to deteriorate. The leukemia cells in approximately 90% of people with chronic myeloid leukemia contain a unique genetic abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. It is the outcome of a genetic material exchange between chromosomes 9 and 22. (a so-called bcr-abl1 fusion gene). According to current research, heredity does not play a role.

What are the symptoms of CML?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) usually begins insidiously and can last for several years. It is often detected by a routine blood test as part of a preventive medical check-up, and can cause an enlargement of the spleen and pain in the upper left abdomen. In advanced stages, leukemia causes the number of healthy, functioning blood cells to decrease, leading to a disruption of all three cell rows.

  • Lack of erythrocytes ( anemia ): weakness, paleness, reduced performance, shortness of breath
  • Lack of platelets (thrombocytopenia): Increased tendency to bleed, which can show up as nosebleeds or bruising (hematomas).
  • Lack of functional white blood cells: Increased susceptibility to infections

The sometimes overwhelming rise in white blood cells can also contribute to the formation of clots and vascular occlusions, but this is uncommon due to the mature cells’ good deformability. In this scenario, we’re talking about leukemic thrombi.

How is CML diagnosed?

History and physical examination

The doctor begins with a thorough discussion of present symptoms and potential risk factors ( anamnesis ). He next checks the spleen and liver, among other organs, which can swell with CML. An ultrasound examination of the abdomen can also be used to measure the size of the organs.

Blood test

The blood shows characteristic alterations. The number of white blood cells (leukocytes) is dramatically raised in the complete blood count, owing to a rise in the number of mature and immature granulocytes. Platelets in the blood may be raised as well. When CML has progressed, there is a paucity of red blood cells (anemia) and blood platelets.

Bone marrow examination

Following the blood test, a bone marrow examination is required to confirm the diagnosis. Under local anesthetic, bone marrow is extracted from the iliac crest (punch biopsy). This test is often performed as an outpatient procedure, requiring no hospitalization.

Evidence of genetic modification: The Philadelpia chromosome

Cytogenetic examinations can detect the Philadelphia chromosome, which is a translocation of genes 9 and 22 in the blood and bone marrow. Rarely, this gene change can be found in acute leukemia, but the course of the disease and treatment differ from normal CML.

How is CML treated?

Hematological response to therapy

Under therapy, the blood count returns to normal, which is referred to as the haematological response. The spleen has recovered to normal size as well. This stage is usually reached a few weeks after starting therapy.

Cytogenetic response to therapy

In the case of a cytogenetic response, bone marrow cells in the division phase are inspected microscopically. The cytogenetic reaction is reflected in fewer cells carrying the Philadelphia chromosome. When the Philadelphia chromosome is no longer detectable, it is said to be in complete cytogenetic remission. This milestone is usually reached after roughly six months.

molecular response to therapy

The polymerase chain reaction can be used to detect the bcr-abl transfusion gene (PCR). A good molecular remission is defined as the bcr-abl value falling below 0.1 percent of the original value. This goal should have been met 12 months after starting therapy.


Cancer specialists use tyrosine kinase inhibitors, especially imatinib, as standard therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as nilotinib and dasatinib, are now also approved for the initial treatment of CML. At the beginning of treatment with imatinib, the drug can cause changes in the blood count, nausea, diarrhea, water retention in the tissue (edema), skin rashes, and muscle cramps. However, the side effects decrease with increasing duration of therapy. It is important to use the prescribed medication regularly, and therapy is often lifelong. If there is an optimal response, stopping or pausing the tyrosine kinase inhibitor can be attempted, preferably as part of a study. If there is a lack of response, a change in tyrosine kinase inhibitors is also an option.

Other drug therapy options

Since tyrosine kinase inhibitors were approved for the treatment of CML in 2002, other therapies have taken a back seat. They are still employed, however, when the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is insufficient. Interferon-alpha, hydroxyurea, and chemotherapeutic medicines are among the medications utilized here.

Know the 7 Symptoms of Malignant Breast Cancer

The most common symptom of cancer is a lump in the breast. However, there are more worrying signals. It is worth knowing them, because the effectiveness of breast cancer treatment depends on how early it is detected.

Although it is the most common cancer in women (about 20% of cancers), the causes of breast cancer are unknown. Factors that increase the risk include, family history of breast cancer, a mutation in the BRCA gene, the first menstrual period before the age of 12 and menopause after the age of 55, or regular drinking of alcohol. Breast cancer detected early is almost always curable. Unfortunately, women report to the doctor late, which drastically worsens the prognosis. Every woman should regularly examine her breasts and know the basic symptoms of this dangerous cancer.

The main symptoms of breast cancer. The 7 most important symptoms of breast cancer include:

  • Tumor in the breast
  • nipple changes (nipple retraction, nippleulceration)
  • nipple discharge
  • skin lesions of the breast (skin pulling, orange peel symptom, ulceration, satellite nodules),
  • lymphadenopathy
  • breast pain,
  • signs of inflammation in the breast (swelling, redness, warmer skin, pain).

The listed symptoms of breast cancer do not have to appear simultaneously, you may notice some of them or only one. Also, remember that the lack of feeling a lump in the breast during self-examination does not exclude the existence of breast cancer.

Lump in the breast

The most common symptom of breast cancer is a tumor. It occurs in 65-75% of cases. It is generally a hard, painless, clearly limited change, often perceptible by touch. It may have uneven edges. Very rarely, a lump in the breast is accompanied by symptoms such as pulling, pinching or other ailments. Therefore, it is important to consult a doctor about any disturbing change found in the breast.

If you feel lumps or lumps in the breast, it is important to observe them throughout the menstrual cycle. Thickenings that grow before menstruation and decrease or disappear completely after menstruation are probably a harmless physiological change. In most women, the breasts swell a few days before their period, which is associated with hormonal changes and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Breast cancer, on the other hand, may be indicated by all lumps and lumps that appeared suddenly and do not change size during the cycle. All such changes should be reported to the doctor, as they may indicate the development of cancer.

Nipple changes

An important symptom of breast cancer is any changes affecting the wart. The fact that a malignant tumor develops in the breast is often evidenced by pulling the nipple inside or ulceration of this part of the breast. The ulcer can proceed as erosion or eczema at the edge of the nipple (a typical symptom of Paget’s cancer). The occurrence of changes in the appearance of the wart should be consulted with a doctor.

In some patients, nipple retraction occurs during puberty and is not a cause for concern, but it is always worth seeking medical advice. Especially dangerous are concavities that appear suddenly after the age of 40.

Nipple leakage

Nipple leakage may or may not be a symptom of breast cancer. If the discharge has the appearance of a white-yellow liquid, hyperprolactinemia, that is, an excess of the hormone prolactin, is probably to blame. It is not a serious condition and usually disappears after taking the medications prescribed by the gynecologist.

However, it also happens that the discharge from the nipple is stained with blood. In this case, you should go to the doctor immediately, it may be a sign of breast cancer. Equally disturbing is the discharge of brown or green color – most often it indicates a harmless cyst, but it can also be caused by cancer.

Skin changes

In addition to the changes felt in self-examination, changes in the appearance of the breast may also be a symptom of breast cancer. A disturbing symptom is changes in size. If both breasts have enlarged, it is most likely the result of hormonal changes or weight gain and there is no need to worry. What is worrying, however, is the enlargement of only one breast.

All changes in the shape of the breast should be observed. If you see protruding nodules or, on the contrary, cavities, urgent contact with a doctor is needed .

Other signs of breast cancer are skin wrinkles and discoloration appearing on the skin.

Skin infiltration and ulcers testify to the advanced stage of development of breast cancer. One of the skin symptoms is also the occurrence of the so-called orange peel (in inflammatory breast cancer).

The late stage of breast cancer or relapse of the disease is evidenced by satellite nodules – these are small skin thickenings that develop in close proximity to the primary tumor focus.

Remission and progression in cancer

Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a characteristic symptom of breast cancer and sometimes the first symptom with which patients report to the doctor.

Breast pain

Unfortunately, the pain is not a symptom of early breast cancer, but only advanced cancer. It appears late. If the pain appeared at the beginning, it would prompt many women to visit the doctor earlier and would probably affect the early detection of breast cancer and better prognosis.

Remember, however, that breast pain is a very common female ailment and generally does not indicate breast cancer.

Symptoms of inflammation

Symptoms of breast cancer that indicate inflammation (swelling, redness, warmer skin and pain) do not bode well. They point to the so-called inflammatory type of breast cancer, which is extremely aggressive. However, this type of cancer is quite rare.

Of course, inflammation does not have to be associated with cancer. A common cause of breast inflammation is stagnation of food or blockage of the milk ducts.

How is breast cancer diagnosed?

The basic diagnostic tests for breast cancer are mammography and breast ultrasound . Mammography is more often intended for women over 40 years of age, and breast ultrasound for younger women. However, these two studies are also treated additionally. In case of disturbing results of mammography or ultrasound, the doctor may order a biopsy or excision of a lump in the breast, followed by a histopathological examination. The basic examination in the detection of breast cancer, however, is self-examination at home.

Where does the pancreas hurt? What kind of pain is this?

The pancreas hurts in the upper abdomen and often the pain radiates to the back. When the pancreas hurts, it can signal various problems: from less dangerous, such as cysts, to very serious, such as pancreatic cancer. In each of these cases, the pain may be different. To find out what is causing pancreatic pain, you need to perform imaging tests and blood tests.

The pancreas, which is part of the digestive system, is a glandular organ located in the upper and posterior part of the abdominal cavity. It is oblong, the size resembles a palm (12-20 cm long and 4-5 cm wide). It consists of a head, shaft and tail reaching to the cavity of the spleen.

The pancreas is an organ that produces digestive enzymes such as lipase, amylase and protease (the gland produces as much as 1-3 l of pancreatic juice per day). It also secretes insulin, glucagon and other compounds that control blood glucose levels.

Where does the pancreas hurt?

The pancreas is located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity behind the large intestine and stomach, in front of the spine. The pancreas is also surrounded by the liver and spleen and the gallbladder. Pancreatic pain is pain in the upper abdomen, i.e. in the upper part of the abdominal cavity, which can radiate towards the back, it can also be girding. Whether the ailments are actually related to the pancreas must be determined by the doctor, based on the test results.

Possible causes of pancreatic pain

Unfortunately, the pain appears only at an advanced stage of the disease and can only be felt in the back area. Its severity can be large and continuous in nature. Initially, pancreatic cancer does not hurt. A sick person may experience discomfort in the abdomen, lack of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, lose weight. Only later does jaundice, abdominal pain and other more specific symptoms develop.

Acute pancreatitis : the pain is continuous and boring, it may not go away after oral administration of analgesics.
In addition to pain, there is fever and jaundice, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, increased heart rate and low blood pressure.

Chronic pancreatitis : the pain is paroxysmal, it can last for many hours or even several days. Between seizures, the pain completely disappears. The patient, despite a good appetite, loses weight, suffers from diarrhea and vomiting. One of the effects of the disease can be diabetes.

Alcoholic causes : pain in the epigastric region for several days gradually increases. The severity of pain occurs when coughing, moving, deep breathing and after a meal.

Pancreatic cysts can cause acute epigastric pain or only its pain or discomfort. They are reservoirs of fluid located in the pancreas or on its surface. In addition, nausea, vomiting, weakness, lack of appetite, fever sometimes appear. In the epigastric or mid-abdomen, the doctor may feel resistance. What tests to do when the pancreas hurts Any epigastric pain requires consultation with a doctor

If the specialist suspects that the cause is a problem with the pancreas, he will order tests that will confirm or exclude the initial diagnosis. These include: ultrasound of the abdominal cavity (but it must be remembered that it is difficult to capture the organ in this study due to the position of the pancreas, ultrasound is of little use in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer), examination of pancreatic enzymes (in blood serum and urine), concentration of acute phase proteins and complete blood count. Your doctor may order computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and in some cases ECPW (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, invasive examination to assess the condition of the bile and pancreatic tract).

Low hemoglobin and cancer : How often is anemia a symptom of cancer?

Anemia is usually a simple symptom to cure. It may, however, conceal cancers of the large intestine, stomach, ovary, kidney, lung, prostate, cervix, and other organs; thus, medical diagnostics should be especially comprehensive in this situation.

A complete blood count is one of the most fundamental preventive exams, and its results might raise the possibility of a variety of health problems, including cancer. Hemoglobin (Hb) is one of the most crucial metrics to pay close attention to.

Low hemoglobin and cancer

Low levels of hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen-carrying protein present in red blood cells, are a sign of anemia. Anemia is a typical symptom of cancer development in the body and can occur as a side effect of cancer treatment. It is estimated that more than 40% of patients will experience it.

Of course, there are many other possible reasons for anemia (such as a poor diet or pregnancy), so additional diagnosis is required if blood test results are unsatisfactory. Adult men should have hemoglobin levels above 14 g/dl, while women should have levels above 12 g/dl.

What cancers can low hemoglobin indicate?

Low hemoglobin, indicative of anemia, is most common in  cancers such as:

  • colorectal cancer ,
  • cervical cancer ,
  • stomach cancer ,
  • lung cancer ,
  • kidney cancer ,
  • ovarian cancer ,
  • prostate cancer,
  • melanoma ,
  • leukemias ,
  • lymphomas .

It is believed that, in fact, all types of cancer can cause anemia. However, some increase this risk.

Anemia associated with cancer may result from various causes, such as:

  • bleeding (e.g. cancer in the reproductive tract, digestive or respiratory system),
  • iron, folic acid or vitamin B 12 deficiency , but also protein or vitamin B 6 deficiency – e.g. due to malabsorption or nutritional disorders, 
  • bone marrow damage during oncological treatment,
  • bone marrow infiltration or metastases,
  • hemolysis , i.e.  the passage of hemoglobin into the blood plasma caused by damage to the erythrocytes  (e.g. in lymphoma),
  • impaired erythropoiesis , i.e. the formation and multiplication of red blood cells (in various cancers)

Low hemoglobin and cancer. What does the MCV tell us?

Low hemoglobin indicates anemia, and the red blood cell volume (MCV) is an important parameter that can help identify the source of the condition. Microcytosis is typical of iron deficiency anemia, while macrocytosis occurs when there is a lack of folic acid or vitamin B12. Normally sized blood cells are found in chronic diseases.

Low iron levels and cancer

Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia, accounting for 80% of all cases. A study published in PLOS ONE suggests that people with iron deficiency anemia have a higher risk of developing cancer, particularly pancreatic, kidney, liver and bladder cancer. Low iron levels can also indicate the presence of cancer. Bleeding can occur from the gastrointestinal tract, reproductive tract, kidneys and lungs.

What cancers cause low iron levels?

Low iron levels can indicate the development of cancers such as:

  • gastrointestinal cancers (e.g. colon cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer),
  • pancreatic cancer,
  • cancers of the genitourinary system (e.g. cervical cancer),
  • respiratory cancer (e.g. lung cancer),
  • blood cancers.

Oncological treatment may also contribute to iron deficiency, which is often the result of a weakened appetite or damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa.

Anemia and cancer : What tests to do?

To begin, stool tests are performed numerous times to check for the presence of occult blood (which cannot be seen) and endoscopic examinations, which show the anatomy of nearly the whole digestive tract from the inside (except for the small intestine, which fortunately is rarely the site of tumor development). 

Urinalysis to detect the presence of red blood cells in the urine is recommended, and a gynecological examination is also recommended in women. Only after diagnosing the cause can suitable treatment, such as iron preparations, be implemented.

Is there a link between CRP and cancer?

CRP is a biomarker for inflammation in the body. Its elevated level may signal a variety of health issues, such as a bacterial or viral infection. Cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer, can cause elevated CRP. The measure is also used to assess cancer patients’ prognosis.

The acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver during the systemic inflammatory response. Its synthesis is influenced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. CRP is produced into the blood within 24 hours of the inflammatory response beginning and returns to normal when the inflammation decreases.

The CRP standard is < 6 mg/l . Smokers and pregnant women may have higher protein levels.

A high CRP level may indicate:

  • bacterial infections (e.g. streptococcal, staphylococcal infection),
  • viral infections (e.g. hepatitis B),
  • autoimmune inflammatory disease (e.g. lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, enteritis),
  • mycosis.

The C-reactive protein test can also be used to tell the difference between bacterial and viral illnesses. Bacterial infections are more likely to cause significantly increased CRP levels (even greater than 100 mg/l). CRP levels are lower (30-40 mg/l) in viral infections.

CRP and cancer. When is high CRP indicative of cancer?

CRP is a non-specific marker of inflammation, and its elevated level may indicate cancer. Studies report both  1 mg/l and above 175 mg/l, but the higher the score, the greater the likelihood of more advanced cancer, the presence of metastases, and a worse prognosis. 

High CRP is due to the constant, low-grade inflammatory response that accompanies advancing cancer. It is important to remember that not every cancer will result in an elevated C-reactive protein, and not every elevated result will mean that we are dealing with cancer.

What kind of cancer can a high CRP indicate?

Elevated levels of CRP in the blood may indicate various types of cancer, such as:

  • colorectal cancer ,
  • lung cancer ,
  • stomach cancer ,
  • breast cancer
  • prostate cancer (prostate),
  • lymphoma ,
  • pancreatic cancer .

CRP and OB

CRP, like the ESR (Bernacki test), indicates the presence of an inflammatory reaction in the body, although the acute phase protein is a more stable characteristic that does not change as much. CRP has no effect on OB. If the ESR is markedly increased while the CRP is normal, myeloma is most likely present (cancer of the hematopoietic system).

CRP and prognosis in cancer patients

The CRP test is used to determine the prognosis of cancer patients. If the CRP is high and there are no symptoms of infection, the prognosis is poor. That could be an indication of a more serious problem. The CRP test can be used to predict the prognosis of tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, and soft tissue sarcoma. However, keep in mind that a high CRP score does not indicate malignancy. Further tests are required to confirm or rule out cancer.

Myths about melanoma. This knowledge can save your life.

Can stress cause melanoma? Melanoma can’t always be seen on the skin. Can dark-skinned people get it? Is melanoma incurable? We set the record straight about one of the most dangerous types of cancer.

Melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes, which produce pigment. Melanoma can develop anywhere on the body, although it is most frequent on sun-exposed skin, such as the face, neck, and back. (Google Bard)

learn more at : Melanoma is a type of skin cancer caused by excessive exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds

Melanoma is the deadliest kind of skin cancer because it can spread to other regions of the body, including the liver, lungs, and brain. Melanoma, on the other hand, is the most treatable type of skin cancer if detected early.(Google Bard)

Melanoma is one of the most dangerous cancers, causing over 1,000 deaths every year. It is not always visible, and only fair-skinned people and the elderly are at risk. There are myths that can cause it to be diagnosed too late.

It is better to avoid removing moles because cancer could develop

The most important details are that removing a mole does not cause cancer, and that it should be removed with an appropriate tissue margin and subjected to a histopathological examination. It is not allowed to take a biopsy from a mole, and if melanoma metastases are detected after removal, surgery is only needed.

Melanoma develops only on the skin.

Most melanomas start out as a dark spot on the skin called a nevus, but the tumor can also form on the mucous membranes and the eyeball. Melanoma can also grow under the nail (more: nail melanoma ). That’s why it’s important to keep an eye on your whole body, including the skin under your hair, and see a dermatologist if you notice any changes that worry you.

Melanoma can only develop from a visible mole

Melanoma can be both colored and not colored, which means it can be hard to see. Melanoma starts out flat, then grows vertically. Over time, it spreads through lymph and blood vessels. Melanoma can also be deep in the skin or look like the skin is getting thicker.

Melanoma is a disease of the elderly

Melanoma is a skin cancer that affects people of all ages, most often in the fifth and sixth decades. In recent years, the incidence of the disease in young people and children has been increasing. Older people are more likely to develop malignant lentigo, a type of skin melanoma with photoaging features. The lesion appears on the face and has good prognosis.

Melanoma is an incurable cancer.

If melanoma is found early, before it has spread, it can almost always be cured. In this group, almost everyone lives for at least 5 years. But the problem with melanoma is that it is hard to find and it grows quickly, which makes the prognosis bad.

Tanning indoors in a tanning bed is risk-free and does not result in melanoma.

This is not true. There is growing evidence that tanning in a tanning bed may increase the risk of developing melanoma .

Melanoma is not a result of stress.

According to research, extreme stress is linked to the development of melanoma. Scientists have discovered that more cases are identified among persons who work in high-stress environments and have decreased immunity as a result. Stress hormones raise the production of cytokines, which are molecules associated with inflammation in the body but can hasten the development of cancer.

Furthermore, it should be emphasized that a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, sun exposure, frequent irritation of the lesion, and fair skin, can all play a role in the development of melanoma.

Melanoma does not threaten people with dark skin who do not tan red.

Tanning, regardless of skin color, causes damage to it and can lead to the development of skin cancer over time. This also applies to people who tan and brown readily. Although those with dark skin are less likely to get melanoma than those with fair complexion,

Melanoma hurts

Melanoma does not cause pain in the initial stages, but as it grows, it can cause metastases or ulcers. Symptoms of concern include dynamic changes in an existing mole, irregular shape, rapid growth, large size, asymmetry, and itching or bleeding from the mole.

Melanoma metastasizes late.

Sadly, melanoma is an extremely aggressive cancer that can cause distant metastases (to the bones, brain, and lungs) even in the early stages of development. Avoiding excessive sun exposure, wearing sunscreen, and having a dermatologist examine moles are all ways to prevent it. 

Why are the signs of colorectal cancer so simple to ignore?

Bloating, abdominal pain, and a feeling of overflowing in the stomach are the first signs of colorectal cancer. They can be confused with normal, harmless digestive issues.

Colorectal cancer symptoms are not distinctive at first, and they are easily confused with common digestive system ailments. Rectal bleeding, weight loss, changes in bowel frequency, and weakness are all causes for concern.

The first symptoms of colorectal cancer

The early stage of colorectal cancer is usually asymptomatic, with bloating, abdominal pain, and other symptoms associated with digestive problems. The timing of symptoms depends on where the cancer is located, with symptoms appearing later for tumors in the right colon.

The warning signs of colorectal cancer should not be ignored.

The most important idea is that symptoms of bleeding, weight loss, change in bowel movements, and weakness should be seen by a doctor, as the earlier the disease is detected, the better the prognosis.

Symptoms that should pay special attention include:

  • rectal bleeding ,
  • blood in the stool
  • mucus in the stool
  • change in bowel habits (e.g. more frequent diarrhea or constipation),
  • problem with defecation,
  • feeling of pressure to stool,
  • stomach pain,
  • “pencil” stools,
  • bloating, feeling full or overflowing,
  • palpable tumor,
  • weight loss,
  • anemia,
  • weakness.

Symptoms of the disease vary depending on the location of the tumor. Symptoms of colorectal cancer developing in the right half of the colon :

  • pain in the right side of the abdomen,
  • dark red blood in the stool
  • iron deficiency anemia.

Symptoms of colorectal cancer developing in the left half of the colon :

  • change in the frequency of bowel movements – the appearance of diarrhea or constipation ,
  • rectal bleeding, blood in stool
  • flatulence, abdominal pain.

Colorectal cancer is most commonly diagnosed in people over the age of 50, but it can occur in children as well. As a result, it is important to carefully monitor all new and chronic illnesses. Alarming symptoms should be evaluated by a doctor as soon as possible, and diagnostic tests should be performed. The earlier cancer is detected, the better the chances of cancer treatment success.

The symptoms of ovarian cancer appear late. What should be of concern?

Cancer of the ovary is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the ovary’s covering, called the epithelium. It is the second most common cancer of a woman’s reproductive organs. It’s dangerous because it’s not found until it’s too late. For a long time, ovarian cancer didn’t show any signs, and when it did, the signs were vague and easy to miss.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer can grow without any signs or symptoms for several years. Early signs of ovarian cancer show up as the tumor grows. These signs can be seen at least a year before the full symptoms of the disease show up. The signs of ovarian cancer aren’t very specific, which means they could also be signs of a number of other health problems.

Early symptoms of ovarian cancer include:

  • feeling of fullness
  • belly bloating,
  • indigestion, heartburn, flatulence, constipation,
  • bladder pressure,
  • frequent urination,
  • quick feeling of fullness,
  • nausea,
  • stomach pain,
  • pelvic pain.

As the disease gets worse, abdominal masses, ascites (a buildup of fluid in the peritoneal cavity), and sometimes pleural effusions appear. A bigger stomach and sudden weight loss are frequent side effects of this. 

There may be signs of a urinary tract infection, such as pain when urinating, pressure in the bladder, and pain in the lower abdomen. Another sign is vaginal bleeding. In this instance, the bacteria’s entry into the bladder, uterus, or vaginal walls is what’s causing the symptoms. 

Symptoms of ovarian cancer that are unusual

You could say that all ovarian cancer symptoms are atypical in some way, because they can also be signs of other diseases. Atypical ovarian cancer symptoms can also be those that have nothing to do with the digestive or urinary systems, such as:

  • back pain, 
  • paleness,
  • tiredness,
  • weakness,
  • painful during intercourse
  • skin rash and muscle inflammation
  • irregular and/or heavy menstruation ,
  • shortness of breath (due to fluid accumulation, felt mainly when lying down).

These symptoms can also indicate the development of ovarian cancer.

Size of the tumor and signs of ovarian cancer

A tumor up to 7 cm in size doesn’t cause any symptoms. Only when it gets to be 11–15 cm in size do symptoms like abdominal pain, discomfort in the abdominal cavity, and often ascites get worse. Most of the time, by that time the tumor is already very far along and can’t be cured completely.

What tests to do?

Ultrasonography of the abdomen and transvaginal ultrasound are the easiest tests for ovarian cancer that are widely available and recommended. If you think you might have ovarian cancer, PET-CT, or Positron Emission Tomography, is a more accurate test. Cancer markers, especially CA 125, may also be helpful to find. Remember not to ignore symptoms like bloating, constipation, feeling full in the stomach, and pain in the lower abdomen. If they happen often, they should always be checked out further.

signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer metastases

Metastases that have spread from ovarian cancer frequently affect the peritoneum. It also spreads through the lymphatic vessels to the pelvic, periaortic, inguinal, and far-off mediastinal and supraclavicular lymph nodes, a process called metastasis. Metastasis can also happen in other organs, most often in the lungs, bones, vagina, and liver. When ascites are very bad, it may mean that the cancer has spread a lot in the peritoneum.

Lymphadenopathy, which is a general swelling of the lymph nodes, shows that the nodes are involved. Metastatic changes may be present if you have bone pain, vaginal bleeding, hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonia, or trouble breathing. As you can see, these are still not very clear signs that something is happening in the ovary.

Who is at risk of ovarian cancer?

Women of all ages can get ovarian cancer, but the risk goes up between the ages of 40 and 70. Women who have never given birth and women whose relatives have had ovarian cancer are more likely to get the disease. It goes down in women who have had babies and used birth control with hormones. According to the FIGO classification, about 70–80% of patients start treatment in clinical stage III or IV. When they are in an earlier stage, they are usually found by accident. This condition is linked to the lack of symptoms or the fact that they are not clear at first.

Myths about breast examination

Do you know the health risks associated with mammography? Or that having small breasts makes it impossible? Do you believe that a breast exam doesn’t need to be rushed or that it is best to skip one because it will only unnecessarily uncover something? These are harmful myths that should not be believed.

Despite the importance of breast examinations, there are many myths surrounding them that can lead to confusion and fear. One common myth is that only women over the age of 50 need to get mammograms. However, the American Cancer Society recommends that women begin getting mammograms at age 40 and continue to get them annually. Another myth is that breast cancer only affects women, but men can also develop breast cancer. It’s important to separate fact from fiction when it comes to breast examinations to ensure proper care and early detection.

The most frequently discovered malignant tumor in women is breast cancer. Breast ultrasound, mammography, and self-examination are the three main breast exams that work in tandem to help find breast cancer early. Unfortunately, there are still misconceptions about breast examination despite our society’s growing health consciousness.

A mammogram won’t be performed if you have small breasts.

Mammography does not have a problem with small breasts. Even a small amount of tissue placed on the mammogram’s base doesn’t prevent the camera from taking pictures. Men can be tested too.

Breast ultrasound and mammography tests are only available to women.

Women are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, but men make up 1% of cases. Regular mammograms and ultrasounds can help detect breast cancer early, which can increase the chances of successful treatment. Additionally, individuals with a family history of breast cancer or other risk factors should consider getting screened at a younger age or more frequently. In a study, experts looked over 1,869 men’s mammograms and found 2,304 breast lesions, 149 of which underwent biopsies and 41 were found to be cancerous. It is important to screen high-risk men for breast cancer to aid in the early detection of cancer and save lives.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding are contraindications for breast imaging

Breast ultrasounds are safe to perform while nursing or pregnant. Mammography is not recommended during pregnancy, but can be done if necessary. Mammograms can also be done while breast-feeding, but the results have no impact on the milk’s quality or composition or the wellbeing of the breastfed child. Women must express milk before the examination to lessen the discomfort.

For women who have breast implants, imaging tests are not done.

Breast ultrasound or mammography are not incompatible with having breast implants, but the presence of implants can make examination and result interpretation challenging. Imaging tests are carried out differently in women with implants, such as taking more pictures or positioning the breast correctly. It is necessary to disclose to the diagnostician prior to the examination.

Every few years, a breast ultrasound is recommended.

More of these studies need to be conducted. . If breast cancer runs in the family, this test should be performed every six months. Between the ages of 50 and 69, mammography should be done every two years, and if there is a family history of breast cancer, every year.

You receive a significant amount of radiation exposure during mammography.

Mammography is regarded as a safe procedure, and the most radiation we are exposed to in one appointment is 0.4 mSv. This quantity falls within the acceptable range for health. We must keep in mind that we are exposed to radiation every day from the environment. Radiation doses between 0.1 and 1.0 mSv increase the risk of death by the same amount as taking a passenger flight over a 7,200-kilometer route. 

Mammography can reliably identify breast cancer. Breast ultrasounds are safe to perform while nursing or pregnant. 

Mammography is not recommended during pregnancy, but can be done if necessary. It can also be done while breast-feeding, but the results have no impact on the milk’s quality or composition or the wellbeing of the breastfed child. Women must express milk before the examination to lessen the discomfort. During an examination, a suspicious change may be found, but breast cancer is not always the result. To confirm or rule out a malignant lesion, additional tests are required, such as a biopsy. Most of these errors are made by women between the ages of 40 and 50.

Anytime is a good time to examine your breasts.

No and yes. Although it is important to be on the lookout for breast cancer, it is not advised to have a breast exam prior to your period because of the hormonal changes brought on by the menstrual cycle. Mammography, ultrasound, and breast self-examination should all be done in the first half of the menstrual cycle, which is the time between the period and ovulation. The breasts swell and are tender before menstruation. It’s not a good idea to perform this kind of test right now because I might also have a different tissue consistency.

Breast ultrasound is less reliable than mammography.

There is no better or worse study among these. These studies support one another, employ various technologies, and cater to various patient populations. Mammography is a test that is primarily recommended for women over 50. (and in some recommendations over 40 years of age ). This test should not be carried out on women under the age of 40 due to the dense breast tissue at a younger age. A breast ultrasound is intended for these women.

When examining your breasts, take your time. It’s a product for older women.

Without a doubt. Every female over the age of 20 should routinely check her breasts. You can form this crucial habit from a young age. It is recommended to perform a so-called breast palpation once per month, ideally between the sixth and ninth day of the menstrual cycle. After age 30, regular breast ultrasound is advised. All women should take steps to prevent breast cancer.

When breasts are examined, the majority of lumps are cancerous.

Contrary! The majority of breast changes found by various tests are benign and unrelated to cancer. Up to 80% of breast lumps are thought to be benign abnormalities. As a result, you shouldn’t be afraid to have your breasts examined. The worry that the test will unquestionably find the illness is unfounded, and it shouldn’t deter us from routine prophylaxis. It’s important to keep in mind that breast cancer does not necessarily mean death. Early detection prevents metastasis, and it is nearly curable.

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