Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of 57 other diseases

People with type 2 diabetes also have a much higher risk of other 57 diseases, including cancer, kidney disease, and neurological disorders.

Source: Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of 57 other diseases

Diabetes: How important are metabolism and schedules?

According to a diabetes study, eating at night increases the blood sugar index. Doctors advise, which takes into account your age and metabolism, is as follows:

Eating after midnight is unhealthy. Several experts had already stated this, but a new study demonstrates how nighttime meals can hasten the development of diabetes because they encourage the rise in blood sugar levels. The passing of the years and metabolism are also things to consider.

Two groups of young people, without specific pathologies, followed an identical diet for two weeks, but the second group ate at night, resulting in a marked increase in blood sugar levels.

Why is eating at night bad for you?

The problem of nutrition and food intake timing is complex, but there are biorhythms that must be respected. People who don’t do this can have their metabolism change, which can lead to diabetes. This is due to the action of insulin, which allows the passage of sugars from the blood to the tissues, which use them as energy. If this step is not taken, blood sugar rises, leading to diabetes.

What can you do to avoid nocturnal glycemic peaks?

The most important details are that night workers and those with nocturnal bulimic crises should try to have a substantial breakfast in the morning and then let a suitable number of hours pass before eating again. The restriction should be between 30-50% of the calorie content, keeping macro-foods such as vitamins unchanged, and that the Mediterranean diet has been more effective than other “life-extending” diets.

“Fault” of the metabolism

The action of insulin in the onset of diabetes is linked to metabolism, which changes according to the hours of the day and night, but also to age. Insulin resistance in the morning is linked to the need to get up and go hunting, while in the evening and at night some “counter-regulatory” hormones are more active, increasing blood sugar.

How important is age?

The latest research found that after the age of 60/65 there is a progressive increase in blood sugar, especially in the morning. This is due to the decrease in muscle mass and the progressive “deterioration” of the cells responsible for the action of insulin. To maintain a muscular state, simple daily actions such as taking the dog out or taking a walk can help to keep weight under control.

The importance of meals at regular times

Regular and balanced meals are important for all ages, both in timing and quantity. It is important to respect the biorhythm, but also the quality of what you eat. Carbohydrates must be low glycemic index, proteins must be present, but not in excessive quantities, and fats should be monounsaturated. Small transgressions are allowed, as too rigid diets can lead to an excessive decrease in muscle mass.


How does oral Semaglutide differ from an injectable weight loss drug?

Semaglutide is one of the most sought-after drugs in the world today. It aids in the fight against obesity and diabetes. It is available for purchase as injections (Ozempic) or tablets (Rybelsus). However, the injectable drug is more popular than the oral drug. Are they extremely dissimilar to one another?

Semaglutide is a medication for type 2 diabetes, but due to its significant impact on weight loss, it has become one of the most sought-after drugs worldwide, and not just among diabetics (more: dangerous trend with diabetes injections). available on prescription only. Although the official indications for semaglutide include the treatment of diabetes, it is known that the drug is also prescribed off-label to obese patients. Due to the high demand, pharmacies continue to lack it.

a popular weight loss drug

Two medicines containing the active substance semaglutide are available on the market:

  • Ozempic—given as an injection once a week,
  • Rybelsus – administered in the form of a tablet orally daily.

Even though the active ingredient in both medicines is the same, Ozempic is more popular, and it is mostly this medicine that is not available in pharmacies. Are semglutide tablets less effective? The similarities and differences between the two drugs were examined.

How does semaglutide work?

Ozempic and Rybelsus’ active ingredient, semgalutide, is used to treat diabetes and obesity. It works by mimicking the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which the intestines secrete after a meal. Consequently, there is a rise in insulin secretion, which regulates glucose levels. Importantly, these drugs only increase insulin levels when glucose levels are elevated, making their use associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia (i.e., an excessive and dangerous drop in sugar). Consequently, these medications are safe for diabetic patients.

Benefits of using semaglutide:

  • lowers blood glucose levels,
  • lowers body weight (more:  slimming injections: how much can you lose? ),
  • reduces appetite, 
  • has a cardioprotective effect, which means it protects against atherosclerosis and lowers the risk of dying from heart disease or stroke.
  • slows down the progression of chronic kidney disease.

The drug can be taken alone or with other anti-diabetes medicines.

Oral semaglutide vs. injection: main differences

Oral Rybelsus semaglutide is the first and only GLP-1 analogue available orally. It functions similarly to an injectable medication and has a cardiovascular safety profile that is comparable. In comparison to Ozempic, its primary disadvantage is that it must be taken daily, as opposed to weekly injections.

Tablets may have a slower rate of drug absorption than injections, which could mean that they have less of a therapeutic effect. Less bioavailability of the tablets may cause less weight loss than expected or less control over blood sugar levels. However, following the directions for semaglutide administration may prevent poor absorption:

  • The tablet must be taken on an empty stomach , swallowed whole, and washed down with a small amount of water,
  • then wait at least 30 minutes before eating or drinking anything.

It’s important to remember that how well semaglutide works, whether it’s taken by mouth or injected, depends on how you live. Therapy should include a proper diet and regular physical activity

Oral semaglutide – side effects

Tablets may have a slower rate of drug absorption than injections, which could mean that they have less of a therapeutic effect. Less bioavailability of the tablets may cause less weight loss than expected or less control over blood sugar levels. However, following the directions for semaglutide administration may prevent poor absorption:

  • progression of retinopathy (in people who already have changes in the fundus of the eye),
  • inflammation of the pancreas,
  • heartburn,
  • constipation,
  • tiredness,
  • loss of appetite or taste disturbances
  • allergy,
  • cholelithiasis,
  • tachycardia. 

It should also be remembered that although the drug is unlikely to pose a risk of hypoglycemia, the risk of hypoglycaemia is higher in people who are taking a drug containing a sulfonylurea or insulin at the same time. Therefore, in these cases, low sugar is a potential side effect. 

See also : Slimming injections : Do they work?

Consumption of artificial sweeteners can increase the risk of stroke by 10 percent

The use of artificial sweeteners can increase the risk of stroke by 10 percent, a new study has found that eating more artificial sweeteners can increase the chances of stroke by up to 10 percent.

Researchers explained the risks of sugar mixed in food in the research.

Researchers studied more than 110,000 Britons and their health was monitored for an average of nine years.

The study found that people who consumed more artificial sweeteners were more likely to suffer from stroke or ischemic cardiovascular disease (a type of cardiovascular problem).

On average, every person in the UK gets about 12 percent of the calories per day from artificial sweeteners. If someone increases this amount by five percent (eating an extra small chocolate bar daily), then according to research, his chances of suffering from stroke increase by 10 percent.

According to the study, this additional consumption was also associated with a 6 percent increased chance of suffering from ischemic heart disease.

Professor Tim Kay, co-author of the study from the University of Oxford, said that the results of the research suggest that the use of artificial sweeteners in general is associated with an increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

In the study, published in the journal BMC Medicine, middle-aged people were asked about their consumption of food and drink over a 24-hour period.

Researchers warn that blood fat levels may be more dangerous than previously thought

Numerous diseases can be exacerbated by excessive blood fat levels. The effects of obesity, high cholesterol, and triglyceride levels are harmful to the body. Recent studies suggest that higher blood fat concentrations may have even more detrimental effects on health than previously believed.

Muscle cells become weighed down by fat, which harms both their structure and function. Recent studies have demonstrated that under stress, cells release a signal that can spread to other cells and increase cellular damage.

Ceramide molecules, whose main purpose is to lessen cellular stress, are used as the signals. Yet, they can cause cell death and aggravate disease symptoms in long-term metabolic conditions like type II diabetes.

Our study may serve as the foundation for future treatments or therapeutic strategies to avoid the onset of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders like diabetes in persons with raised blood fat levels in obesity, even if the research is still in its early phases.

Newly identified ceramide migration

The addition of a fatty acid known as palmitate allowed the researchers to activate ceramide signaling in human skeletal muscle cells created to resemble those of persons with metabolic disorders.

These cells carried ceramides in bundles known as extracellular vesicles, which are naturally released by all cells, and started to communicate with each other when they were mixed with cells that had not been exposed to lipids.

Researchers observed the same processes in tests conducted on mice and muscle cells taken from humans (volunteers).

Ceramides are known to be harmful to the body, but the researchers say that more research is needed to figure out what the movement of ceramides found recently means.

According to the researchers, even more unknown factors may be at play. The messaging system is potentially one way that people with obesity develop further complications, such as diabetes.

The latest discoveries regarding the new transmission system may prove helpful in preventing the development of possible complications by blocking ceramides. More research is needed to determine further treatments.

Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of 57 other diseases


People with type 2 diabetes also have a much higher risk of other 57 diseases, including cancer, kidney disease, and neurological disorders.

The discovery came in the most comprehensive medical research to date .

Millions of people worldwide suffer from diabetes, which is linked to overweight or distance from physical activity or a family history of type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes increases the risk of various complications and keeping this in mind, experts from the University of Cambridge in the UK conducted an in-depth examination.

The largest study of middle-aged people with or without diabetes found that the condition increased the risk of developing 57 other long-term illnesses.

On average, diabetics experience age-related medical problems 5 years earlier than healthy people.

Experts say the results are shocking and highlight the urgent need to protect people from developing type 2 diabetes.

The study examined data from 3 million people in the UK Biobank and doctors’ records examining 116 diseases that are common in middle-aged people.

The results found that 57 out of 116 diabetics had a higher risk of developing diabetes, with a 9% increased risk of cancer.

Similarly, patients with type 2 diabetes have a 5.2-fold increased risk of developing late-stage kidney disease, a 4.4-fold increased risk of liver cancer, and a 3.2-fold increased risk of muscle loss.

When it comes to blood circulation problems, 23 out of 31 patients with type 2 diabetes have a very high risk.

The study linked type 2 diabetes to the risk of poor health in all 11 health categories: 2.6 times the risk of mental and neurological problems, 2.3 times the risk of vision problems, 1.9 times the risk of digestive problems and mental health. The risk of disease is 1.8 times higher.

The study focused on people over the age of 30, and experts found that people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before the age of 50 may be at higher risk.

The researchers said that the results show that prevention or slowing down the spread of diabetes in middle age is essential for the prevention of life-threatening diseases.

The results of this study have not yet been published in any medical journal but were presented at the Diabetes UK Professional Conference.

Slimming injections : Do they work?

Injections for slimming is the common name for drugs in the GLP-1 analogue class, which are primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. Drugs have become very popular since it was discovered that they could significantly reduce body weight.

slimming injections
Photo by Julia Larson on

Semaglutide (Ozempic), liraglutide (Saxenda, Victoza), and dulaglutide are the three main ingredients in the so-called slimming injections (Trulicity). Despite the fact that all of them can help people lose weight, only Saxenda is approved for the treatment of obesity in Poland. Although they may be prescribed by a doctor “off-label” (beyond the indications in the leaflet) for the treatment of overweight and obesity, other medications are designed for diabetic patients. These medicines are on prescription. Unfortunately, due to the enormous demand for slimming injections, pharmacies are struggling to stock diabetes medications.

Injections for slimming: when does the doctor prescribe them?

Drugs that mimic the incretin hormones that are released in the digestive system after a meal, or “GLP-1 analogues,” stimulate the release of the hormone insulin and aid in blood sugar regulation. Therefore, they are typically suggested to type 2 diabetes patients. Furthermore, products in this category protect the circulatory system and can aid in weight loss (learn more: which slimming injection is the best?).

Indications for the use of individual “slimming injections” according to the leaflet are:

  • Ozempic – in adults with type 2 diabetes that is not adequately controlled together with an appropriate diet and exercise,
  • Saxenda – in adults for weight management , along with diet and exercise if present
    – BMI of 30 kg/m² or more (obese) or
    – BMI of at least 27 kg/m² but less than 30 kg/m² (overweight) and health problems related to body weight (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, diabetes, previous heart attack, stroke).
  • Victoza  – in adults and children from 10 years of age with type 2 diabetes , in combination with diet and physical activity,
  • Trulicity  – in adults with insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes , together with appropriate diet and exercise.

The doctor may prescribe drugs based on the directions in the leaflet (mostly for diabetic patients) or for other health problems that are not on the label.

  • obesity,
  • insulin resistance,
  • polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . 

Injections for slimming: how to get them?

Diabetics and people who want to lose weight should go to their family doctor or specialist to get a prescription for a slimming injection, as doctors often prescribe off-label to people who do not have diabetes.

The diabetes medication offers defense against other severe illnesses.

The medication used to treat type 2 diabetes patients also has other applications. Researchers have found that it might also aid in the prevention of dementia. That’s not all, though. The unexpected benefits of preparation are impressively numerous.

Diabetes type 2 is a chronic condition. In addition to regular medical examinations, it necessitates the administration of drugs to help control blood sugar levels.

A diabetes drug will protect against dementia

Dr. Eosu Kim’s research at Yonsei University in South Korea has demonstrated that dementia can be prevented from progressing over time with prompt intervention.

People with ischemic heart disease or those who had previously experienced a stroke benefited from the type 2 diabetes medication pioglitazone. These patients had a 43 and 54% lower chance of getting dementia, respectively.

In participants taking the medication for two years and for four years, the decline in dementia cases was 22% and 37%, respectively. Up to 91,218 South Koreans whose health was tracked for ten years provided data for the study. Of them, 3,467 were given pioglitazone.

Lower risk of stroke

Researchers found that pioglitazone-taking study participants had a lower risk of stroke. According to the study’s lead author, the information gathered could be a useful tool for creating dementia prevention in the future, which would be “a game changer.”

There is no connection between pioglitazone and preventing dementia, according to earlier studies in individuals with dementia or at risk for cognitive decline who did not have diabetes.

Fever, vomiting or diarrhea can mess up blood sugar levels

Your body overheats when you have a fever in an effort to combat viruses and bacteria. Stress hormones are also released. These cause blood sugar to rise. On the other hand, vomiting and diarrhea can cause the sugar level to fall too low.

Fever can mess up your sugar levels
Photo by Polina Tankilevitch on

Diabetologists advise checking blood sugar every two to four hours in order to identify mistakes early. This includes people with type 2 diabetes who do not inject insulin. Your doctor won’t generally advise you to use blood sugar test strips. Serious illnesses are included here.

Discontinue or continue taking diabetes pills?

When an infection occurs, discuss with your doctor what rules apply to your medication. Metformin tablets are frequently taken by people with type 2 diabetes. In cases of pneumonia and other more serious infections, metformin can cause dangerous hyperacidity. The drug may then need to be temporarily stopped. This also holds true for SGLT-2 inhibitors (gliflozine). Sulfonylureas, which contain the active ingredients glibenclamide and glimepiride, increase the production of insulin.

Hypoglycemia is a possibility, for instance, if you are unable to eat or drink anything due to a digestive infection. The dosage may then need to be lowered or the tablets skipped. Fever, on the other hand, might also call for a dose increase.

Gliptines (such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin) can typically be taken as usual. Glutide, a GLP-1 analogue, is injected. It may make sense to temporarily stop using the injections if they exacerbate gastrointestinal symptoms, according to Pillin. You might need temporary insulin if the values seem to be heading out of control. Consult your doctor about this as well.

What do I have to consider with insulin?

You frequently require more insulin if you are feverish. The amount also depends on how blood sugar levels change. Fast-acting insulin, also known as mealtime insulin, can be used to lower elevated values if you follow the guidelines discussed with your doctor. You only need to quickly inject insulin to lower elevated levels if you don’t eat. Ask the doctor to explain the procedure in the case of mixed insulin. The body requires basal insulin as a basic supply, so never skip it.

If you have type 1 diabetes and experience nausea or abdominal pain, you should consider ketoacidosis. When the body doesn’t have enough insulin, such as when B. a higher requirement was not adjusted, dangerous hyperacidity results. You should get a blood or urine ketone test if you experience any of the symptoms, such as extreme thirst and rotten fruit-smelling breath. If the outcome is abnormal, proceed according to your emergency ketoacidosis plan. Call an ambulance if you are unsure or if you are in severe pain.

What applies to children?

An infection can cause the blood sugar to crash, especially quickly in children. According to a children’s diabetologist from Herford, parents should check their children’s blood sugar at least every two hours, including once at night between two and three o’clock. He suggests tolerating slightly higher sugar levels during an infection, around 160 mg/dl (8.9 mmol/l), to prevent hypoglycemia.

Please modify the insulin dosage in accordance with the guidelines agreed upon with the doctor. Children should drink plenty of fluids because they quickly dehydrate. Drinks that are sweetened can help to prevent hypoglycemia when someone is vomiting or having diarrhea. If you are experiencing ketoacidosis symptoms, get a ketone test right away. Adjust abnormally high sugar levels in accordance with the ketoacidosis plan of the training. Consult the diabetes team for advice. Take the child to the doctor or dial 911 if the situation does not get better.

How do I prevent dehydration?

With fever, vomiting or diarrhea, the body loses fluid and minerals. High sugar levels increase dehydration. It is best to balance this out with mineral water (non-carbonated) or tea. In the case of diarrhea, electrolyte-glucose mixtures from the pharmacy can be useful.

If you don’t carry any food with you and a low blood sugar level is impending, sweet drinks, like tea with glucose, can help. ingest in small, deliberate sips. Try easily digestible carbohydrates, like white bread or rusks, if the vomiting stops. Foods that cause constipation, like bananas or applesauce, are appropriate for diarrhea.

What remedies help in recovery?

Different pharmaceutical products can aid in the treatment of colds, coughs, and sore throats. It is especially critical for those who have diabetes, hypertension, or heart issues to get advice on the best treatments. Some can raise blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Decongestant nasal sprays or drops help you breathe more easily and fall asleep if you have a blocked nose. You should use these medications for no longer than one week due to the habituation effect and potential long-term harm to the nasal mucosa.

Ibuprofen or paracetamol-containing medications lower fevers and ease headaches and body aches. Expectoration is made simpler with a mucolytic preparation. A dry cough can be alleviated by a cough suppressant. However, it prevents expectoration and shouldn’t be taken concurrently with an expectorant. There are lozenges for sore throats; pick one without sugar.

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