Blood test: which values reveal what?

The body fluid that is examined most frequently is blood. due to the fact that specific changes in the blood components or blood count can identify many diseases. Doctors can categorize the severity of a condition using these numbers.

Blood tests
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What blood is made of ?

Special cells and protein-rich blood plasma, which transports these cells in the cardiovascular system, make up blood. The circulatory system of the body primarily pushes it through the blood vessels.

The length of all blood vessels in humans is over 100,000 kilometers. According to a general rule, the adult human body’s vascular system holds about five to six liters of blood, or about 70 to 80 milliliters per kilogram of body weight (roughly 7% of body weight).

Blood is the body fluid that is most frequently examined because certain changes in the blood components in the blood count can identify many diseases and classify them according to their severity.

Small and large blood counts

The best way to regularly check your health and monitor things like blood lipid levels, inflammation levels, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies is with a blood test.

With a small or large blood count, important parts of the blood are looked at to figure out what diseases might be present.

Measurements are made of hemoglobin, platelets, thrombocytes, and the red and white blood cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes). Monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes are also included in the complete blood count.

You should pay attention to these values.

Blood fat levels and blood sugar levels

The doctor checks the amount of fat and sugar in the blood on a regular basis to find or prevent diabetes, obesity, or arteriosclerosis.

Blood lipid levels that are measured are LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. In rare cases, omega-3 and omega-6 are also measured.

Fasting blood sugar is calculated using glucose for the analysis of blood sugar levels. The HbA1c level is an indicator of long-term blood sugar levels.

Inflammation values

Certain diseases usually involve inflammation in the body. There are also specific markers for this that a blood analysis can reveal:

  • CRP: The plasma protein CRP is part of the body’s defense system. The level of CRP in the blood rises with infection, inflammation, and tissue damage.
  • Leukocytes—the white blood cells They are so called because they appear white under the microscope. They play an important role in defending against pathogens such as bacteria or viruses, but also against foreign bodies or endogenous tissue that has to be eliminated.
  • ESR—Blood sedimentation rate (ESR) measures how quickly the red blood cells in the blood flow down.


diseased thyroid is associated with chronic fatigue, depression, being overweight if it’s underactive, and underweight if it’s overactive.

The most important values in a thyroid test are:

  • fT3 (Triiodothyronine)
  • fT4 (thyroxine)
  • TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)


For vitamins D, A, and B12 in particular, a blood analysis in the form of a vitamin deficiency test is performed. Folic acid levels in women should also be checked. The measurement of additional vitamins depends on the symptom. For instance, vitamin deficiencies frequently result in fatigue. 85 percent of people lack enough vitamin D.

Given that the body produces vitamin D on its own under the influence of sunlight, checking the blood level of this vitamin during the dark season may make sense. In particular, vitamin D is crucial for healthy skin, hair, and muscles.

Also, not getting enough vitamin D can make you more likely to get sick or have neurological problems like migraines. Vitamin D deficiency is linked to depression, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.

Folic acid and vitamin B12 are crucial for growth, blood formation, cell division, and nerve function. It can make sense to have the vitamin B12 level checked when eating strictly vegan as well as when eating an unbalanced diet. During pregnancy, folic acid is especially crucial for the development of the baby’s nervous system.


Minerals are also important for a functioning metabolism. Symptoms such as tiredness or muscle cramps are known in the case of a magnesium deficiency.

Mineral deficiency is widespread. More than 90% of people do not get enough iodine, every fourth man does not get enough magnesium, and 75% of women do not get enough iron. In a blood analysis, the minerals iron, zinc, iodine, magnesium, and calcium are most frequently measured.


Infection and inflammation from wound necrosis pose a direct threat to life.

Gangrene and tissue necrosis are other names for necrosis. It is a condition that needs immediate medical attention because, in the acute stage, shock, organ failure, and even death can result from it. Necrosis: What is it? What information about tissue necrosis is valuable?

Necrosis, also known as gangrene, is a state of tissue or organ death that has permanent effects on the human body. Dead tissue is dry and dark in color, which inhibits the growth of fresh, healthy cells there.

Infection and inflammation from wound necrosis pose a direct threat to life. There are many different parts of the body that can experience necrosis, such as the skin, fingers, feet, legs, and nails.

How does necrosis occur?

Necrosis is caused by insufficient flow of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the site. It can be caused by chemical or mechanical trauma, gangrene, or infection with microorganisms. Factors that can cause tissue death include ischemia, hypoxia, toxins, viruses and radiation. Necrosis can affect both organs and tissues, such as leg necrosis, mouth necrosis, foot necrosis, fingertip necrosis, lung necrosis, stomach necrosis, or penile necrosis.

Types of necrosis

Clot necrosis

The most common type of tissue death caused by ischemia and infarction is called coagulation necrosis. Nonsecretory cells die, the organ’s tissues condense, the volume of the affected part of the organ goes down, and that part of the organ stops working.

Melt necrosis

Hypoxia, viral hepatitis, and local fungal and bacterial infections all contribute to liquefaction necrosis, a type of necrosis that affects the central nervous system. Eventually, phagocytes or neutrophils remove it from the body in the form of yellow goo (pus). With necrosis, the wound has more fluid coming out of it, and the necrosis at the bottom of the wound is liquid.

Caseous necrosis

Diseases like syphilis, tuberculosis, Hodgkin’s disease, and some types of cancer cause caseous necrosis, which is the breakdown of tissue. It is made up of dissolved cells or pieces with an uneven structure, which destroys all the tissue.

Enzymatic necrosis

Pancreatic enzymes that leak out and digest the parenchyma are what cause enzymatic necrosis of adipose tissue. This causes chalky white areas, inflammatory infiltrates, and bleeding.


Gangrene is a necrosis caused by infection with Clostridium bacteria. Dry necrosis causes ischemic tissue to become desiccated and mummified, and is often diagnosed in people with diabetes. Moist necrosis develops in tissues that are warm and moist, and also have contact with the external environment. Gas gangrene is the result of gas-producing bacteria.

Fibrinous necrosis

Immune responses that result in an accumulation of antigen-antibody complexes in the arterial wall—a fibrinoid—cause fibrnous necrosis.

Symptoms of necrosis

Skin changes are the obvious sign of necrosis, but it’s also possible for the condition to cause swelling, pain, and itchiness as it progresses. In the final stage, the damaged area frequently experiences a loss of sensation. Necrosis can also cause an increase in body temperature, burning, and oozing from the wounds that result from it.

Treatment of necrosis

Due to its specific symptoms, necrosis is hard to diagnose, but extra tests can help choose the right antibiotic. Necrosis can be treated in different ways, depending on how sick the patient is and how bad the infection is. Necrosis must be removed from the wound and its edges, and surgery and drugs must be used to reduce inflammation, stop bacteria from growing, and help the tissue heal. It is also possible to use an ointment for skin necrosis and a specialized dressing for necrosis.


Necrosis: prevention

Prevention of necrosis is based on avoiding factors that may contribute to the occurrence of necrosis, such as low and high temperatures, prolonged pressure or radiation. Regular preventive examinations and monitoring of cholesterol in the blood are also important. All wounds should be properly secured and in the case of difficult healing, consult a doctor.

Risk of necrosis

Necrosis is more likely in people with certain diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and circulatory system disorders. Elderly, obese, immunocompromised, and high cholesterol levels should be monitored.

When should the prolactin test be done? Which day of the cycle?

The pituitary gland produces it, and having too much of it (hyperprolactinemia) can result in infertility, galactorrhea, low libido, and excessive hair growth. 10–40% of women who don’t have periods have too much prolactin in their bodies.

How do I test the level of prolactin?

The doctor orders a blood prolactin test because he/she thinks the patient has hyperprolactinemia. This test can be done at any time during a woman’s cycle. You should have breakfast before you go to the blood test in the morning. You shouldn’t work out, have sex, or do anything else to your nipples. You should also avoid stress.

Let us remind you that the correct level of prolactin depends on the phase of the cycle and is:

  • follicular phase – below 23 µg/l,
  • lutein phase – below 40 µg / l,
  • third trimester of pregnancy – up to 400 µg/l.

If the amount of prolactin in the blood is too high (more than 20-25 ng/ml), further testing is needed: First, it should be looked into whether or not the woman:

  • she is not pregnant
  • there is no hypothyroidism ,
  • does not take medications that may increase the level of prolactin in the blood.

The next step is to use metoclopramide to do a functional test. Functional hyperprolactinemia is diagnosed if the amount of prolactin in the blood goes up by more than six times after taking the tablet. If the growth is smaller, an MRI must be done on the pituitary gland, where a tumor may be present.

Elevated prolactin

The body makes too much prolactin sometimes in response to things like stress, sleep, nipple stimulation, and sexual activity. When these things happen to a healthy person, the hormone level goes up a little bit. This is called “functional hyperprolactinemia.

The pituitary gland may also send out too much prolactin in the following situations:

  • there is a tumor in the pituitary gland (the so-called pituitary adenoma , prolactinoma) that secretes a hormone,
  • the liver or kidneys do not work properly – they are unable to metabolize prolactin, which leads to its accumulation,
  • in hypothyroidism,
  • while taking certain medications (e.g. antidepressants, antihypertensives), after discontinuation of hormonal contraceptives.

Menstrual disorders

How you feel depends on how much prolactin is in your blood. Most of the time, menstrual problems are the first to show up. Menstrual bleeding becomes irregular, and the time between periods gets longer and longer. Menstruation can be very light or very heavy, depending on the person. Most of the time, these disorders are accompanied by infertility and a lower libido.

Galactorrhoea and excessive hair growth

Then galactorrhoea may happen, which is when a woman who is not breastfeeding has milk in her breasts. Hyperprolactinemia can also cause hair to grow too quickly. As we’ve already said, a tumor in the pituitary gland is one of the things that can cause hyperprolactinemia. If the tumor is big, it can cause headaches and a narrowing of the field of vision.

see also : High prolactin levels and weight gain: how does prolactin affect appetite and shape?

5 Symptoms of Joint Diseases

Joint pain, or gout is very painful, and it is thought to be the cause of all diseases that can hurt anyone.

Too much uric acid in the blood is what causes this disease. The body produces uric acid, which it typically dissolves in the blood and excretes through the urine. However, when the body has a lot of it, it builds up and causes problems. The kidneys can’t get rid of it once it starts to form.

As a result, it starts to form crystals in the joints, causing pain in the joints. Before suffering from this disease, are there symptoms that can be detected and avoided?

Swelling of toes

Uric acid builds up in the body, which causes the big toe to swell up as the first sign of this disease. Happens at night and is so painful that you can’t move. The thumb gets hot, red, and swollen, but the pain goes away after a few weeks and doesn’t come back for months or years.

Other inflamed joints

This disease can affect any joint in the body where uric acid builds up. Men are more likely to get it in their feet, knees, and elbows, while women are more likely to get it in their hands and knees.

Use of certain medications

Even when drugs are used to treat high blood pressure, the amount of uric acid in the body starts to rise. People with joint disease or weak bones who use these drugs get gout. There is a high risk. If you have joint pain, talk to your doctor about changing your medicine..

lack of food

Overconsumption of red meat, soft drinks, alcohol, and other substances that convert to uric acid in the body can also be a cause of this illness. becomes Medical experts say that people now eat a lot of high-fat junk food, which is why people with no family history of joint diseases are now getting them.


People who are overweight have a lot of uric acid build up, and their kidneys have a hard time getting rid of it. This makes them more likely to get this disease. If a doctor says that a person is obese, that person must make changes to his or her lifestyle to get rid of the condition by losing weight.

see also : Arthritis (joint inflammation)

Abdominal and inguinal hernias are life-threatening, so it is better to prevent them.

A hernia slowly grows and initially may not show any symptoms. As an inguinal hernia gets worse, the symptoms get worse as well. Although the initial symptoms may be hazy, as they get worse, they become more distinct. It is better to prevent abdominal and inguinal hernias because they are both potentially fatal.

Hernia can be life threatening
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What is a hernia?

When an organ or fatty tissue pushes through a tear or weak area in the surrounding fascia, a muscle or connective tissue, the disease is known as a hernia. The inguinal, umbilical, abdominal, femoral, and surgical hernias are the most prevalent forms.

We can distinguish between a hernial sac, canal, and gate in a hernia. An opening in the integument known as a hernia port allows the contents of the abdominal cavity to exit. The hernial sac, which is produced by the peritoneum and houses the contents of the hernia, is connected to the abdominal cavity under the skin through the hernial canal.

Types of hernia

Each type of hernia develops as a result of pressure and muscle tissue weakness. There are various forms of hernias depending on where it is located. Internal and exterior hernias should be distinguished from one another. Internal hernias cause the displacement of organs into the nearby bodily cavity. In contrast, an external hernia occurs when the displaced organ lies beneath the skin. Hernias can also be classified as congenital or acquired.

A protrusion in the groin or scrotum associated with a hernia may hurt or burn. A sudden bulge can happen after lifting weights, coughing, bending, or laughing, or it can happen over the course of weeks or even months.

Inguinal hernia

Up to 75% of cases of abdominal hernias are inguinal hernias, which are the most frequent type. every hernia. When a section of intestine slips through the muscles of the lower abdomen and into the groin region, an abdominal hernia develops. It’s important to distinguish between straight and oblique hernias while dealing with inguinal hernias.

An apparent protuberance of the abdominal wall is the main and most obvious sign of an inguinal hernia. With effort or coughing, the bulge grows. This region can occasionally experience pain that spreads to the testicles. Inguinal hernias might hurt, yet they can also feel completely painless. The perineum region may also enlarge and feel heavy as additional symptoms. When you lie down, these symptoms might go away.

Vomiting and nausea are signs of an inguinal hernia, both of which may be accompanied by pain. Sometimes the hernia gets stuck, which is a big problem because it causes the wall of the intestine that is stuck to die or blocks the digestive tract.

If this occurs, emergency surgery is required, and occasionally the surgeon is compelled to remove a portion of the ischemic intestine. A hernia that is left untreated grows over time, lowers the patient’s quality of life, and occasionally results in disability.

Femoral hernia

Organs from the abdominal cavity can pass through the femoral canal and into the groin in the event of a femoral hernia. Your groin and upper leg may be always uncomfortable if you have a femoral hernia. It is best to see a doctor if you think you have a femoral hernia because it can get imprisoned and cause death.

Nerve tube hernia

Neural tube hernia is part of a whole set of neural tube defects that appear at a very early stage of fetal development. In the case of neural tube hernias, a distinction should be made between:

Cerebral hernias – this type of hernia is the cause of mental retardation . Cerebral hernias mean that brain tissue protrudes outside the skull due to bone loss.

Spinal cord hernias – this type of hernia is a congenital defect of the spine. Spinal cord hernias are caused by the underdevelopment of the vertebrae that protect the spinal cord.

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