Adnexitis : symptoms and treatment of inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes

Heavy menstruation and intense, cramping abdominal pain are two signs of adnexitis. Most frequently, untreated intimate infections lead to adnexitis. Young, sexually active women between the ages of 15 and 30 are frequently affected. Antibiotics are absolutely necessary for the disease’s treatment.

Adnexitis is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries caused by a bacterial infection. It is diagnosed in 1 in 100 women every year, but many cases go undiagnosed. Infection usually occurs via the ascending route from the lower part of the reproductive tract, affecting the cervix and uterus first.

Adnexitis – symptoms

When the appendages are first infected, acute inflammation develops.  The main symptoms of adnexitis are:

  • very strong, cramping abdominal pain,  more specifically lower abdominal pain ,
  • fever (usually above 38°C),
  • bad mood.

There are also often:

  • vomiting,
  • pain during intercourse , worse with deep penetration
  • intense pain when pressing on the abdomen,
  • heavier than usual menstruation,
  • spotting ,
  • intense discharge.

What causes adnexitis?

Bacteria are to blame for the disease’s onset: gonorrhea, chlamydia, and, less frequently, Mycoplasma genitalium, E. coli, or streptococci. Adnexitis is most commonly caused by an intimate sexually transmitted infection. As a result, excessive sexual activity, not wearing a condom, and changing partners all increase the risk of ovarian and fallopian tube inflammation. Menstruation, childbirth, puerperium, miscarriage, and many gynecological treatments all promote appendage inflammation.

Identification of adnexitis

A vaginal ultrasound may be performed by a gynecologist to diagnose inflammation of the adnexa , however, the disease can only be diagnosed by laparoscopy and swab collection. Additional tests are also performed, such as morphology, urine analysis, and inflammatory markers.

Treatment of adnexitis

Adnexitis is treated by taking antibiotics, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory medications orally. A hospital stay is essential in severe cases of disease and in pregnant women. If the body’s response to antibiotic treatment is inadequate, the doctor will recommend surgical treatment, such as laparoscopy or puncture and drainage (in the case of an abscess).

Additional recommendations are usually:

  • easily digestible diet – because as a result of infection and antibiotic therapy, you may have stomach problems (especially diarrhea or bloating),
  • wearing warm clothes – cooling of the abdomen and kidneys aggravates symptoms,
  • drinking plenty of fluids – vomiting and fever contribute to dehydration,
  • taking care of intimate hygiene – not to create favorable conditions for the development of bacteria,
  • rest – to regenerate your strength and fight the infection faster,
  • abstaining from intercourse – it is painful at this time, and may also favor the re-influx of microorganisms.

Effects of adenexitis

It must be remembered that the disease must be treated as quickly as possible, or it will cause major problems. Adnexitis, if left untreated, can have catastrophic implications. such as:

  • abscess
  • adhesions in the pelvis,
  • fistulas,
  • peritonitis,
  • bowel obstruction,
  • infertility,
  • ectopic pregnancy
  • chronic pain.

Many of them are very difficult to treat, so it is not worth underestimating the symptoms of adnexitis. 

What to do when the problem returns?

If acute adnexitis is not properly treated, the symptoms will return. Persistent adnexitis may contribute to the production of adhesions in the fallopian tubes, resulting in difficulties conceiving. In the case of reoccurring infections, therapy is used as in acute inflammation, followed by the so-called stimulation treatment to deal with adhesions. Your doctor may recommend that you see:

  • irradiation and local heating,
  • mud treatments ,
  • terapuls, i.e. treatment using a device that generates a magnetic field,
  • surgical unblocking of the fallopian tubes .

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries (adnexitis)

Lower abdominal pain, fever, and discharge are typical signs of fallopian tube and ovarian inflammation. Chlamydia and other bacteria are frequently the triggers. Infertility is a possibility if treatment is delayed.

Adnexitis is a serious gynecological disease that is particularly common in young, sexually active women up to their mid-twenties. It is caused by a bacterial infection and is usually treated with antibiotics. Symptoms include fever, pain in the lower abdomen, severe malaise, nausea, and vomiting. 

How are fallopian tube inflammation symptoms recognized?

Adnexitis symptoms can vary greatly from person to person. The infection can go almost undetected in some women. In other instances, the predicament is fatal. In any case, if you experience symptoms, you should visit a gynecologist right away.

The following signs point to an inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen, often unilateral
  • the pain can radiate
  • nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • strong feeling of illness
  • possibly (smelling) vaginal discharge

Adnexitis is most often caused by bacteria. They reach the fallopian tube and ovary in different ways:

  • Ascending infection : The bacteria come from the outside and travel through the vagina to the fallopian tubes and ovaries. This can happen during a sexual act or after a gynecological procedure, like a scraping or putting in a spiral hysteroscope.
  • Descending infection : Inflammation spreads from a neighboring organ to the female genital organs – for example, from the appendix in the case of appendicitis.
  • Hematogenous Infection : Pathogens are spread through the blood. Genital tuberculosis is an example.

Adnexitis is a common infection in young women, especially those who have unprotected sexual contact. Infection with chlamydia or gonococci, a lack of estrogen, a weakened immune system, and metabolic diseases can all contribute to the risk of adnexitis.

How does the doctor make a diagnosis?

Gynecologists need to do a thorough exam and talk to the patient to diagnose inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Changes in sexual partners or gynecological procedures could indicate adnexitis.

Adnexitis is characterized by cervical sliding pain during gynecological examination, which can be detected with a smear from the vagina and cervix and ultrasound examination of fluid accumulations.

Adnexitis is often caused by inflammation in the fallopian tubes and ovaries, and a reflection (laparoscopy) of the pelvis can be used to diagnose it. An endoscope is used to look at organs in the area of the pelvis through a small cut in the abdominal wall.

What helps with fallopian tube inflammation?

When the fallopian tubes and ovaries are inflamed, it is best to stay in the hospital as an inpatient. Symptoms of a pelvic inflammatory disease can be similar to those of an ectopic pregnancy or appendicitis. During treatment, it is best to stay in bed and not have sexual relations. Things that don’t belong must be taken out.

Treatment with antibiotics

The drug treatment of fallopian tube and ovarian inflammation is mainly carried out with antibiotics. A swab from the vagina and cervix is used to determine the sensitivity of the bacteria to certain antibiotics. The duration of therapy can be up to three weeks. In the case of sexually transmitted pathogens, appropriate treatment of the partner is also advisable. Home remedies such as heat applications, bed rest, physical rest, and sufficient fluid intake can have a supportive effect.

Tubal Inflammation: What Complications Occur?

Adnexitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, which can lead to complications such as accumulation of pus (abscesses) in the fallopian tubes or ovaries, inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis), and blood poisoning or sepsis. Adhesions can occur as a late consequence of inflammation, which can cause pain and block the passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus. Unrecognized fallopian tube and ovarian infections are a common cause of unwanted childlessness. Regular check-ups by the gynecologist and the consistent use of condoms can protect against infections and reduce the risk of adnexitis.

U.S. states mobilize to legalize women’s lower torso inspections

Like many countries in the world, governments in U.S. states have also mobilized to legalize medical examination of women’s lower body parts and it is likely to be legalized in more states soon.

The women’s lower body test is called the pelvic exam and is partially legal in 20 out of 50 u.S. states.

However, now that diseases or medical complications have increased among women, the state governments want the students there to excel in this field as well.

Usually pelvic examination or lower body of women are examined by obstetric doctors, but they also do a limited number of examinations, because the process is seen as embarrassing and the consent of patients is not taken before doing such a test.

But now several U.S. states are legalizing pelvic exams and allowing every woman to sign a consent to such an examination when going to the hospital so that medical students and doctors can perform such examinations without any hassle.

According to the Associated Press (AP), the governor of Montana state signed a law in April on the examination of women’s lower body, after which more states are now engaged in making such laws.

Other states, including Missouri, Ohio and Colorado, are expected to pass similar laws soon.

According to the rules, all women coming to the hospital will be examined during pelvic examination if needed and they will be informed in writing before the said test and their signature will be taken for their consent.

The above process will be exactly the same as now at the time of admission to the hospital, the patient or his heirs write to the hospital in writing that they know the complications of their patient and they will not obstruct the treatment, the hospital staff is allowed to do all kinds of treatment.

Once these laws are passed, not only doctors but also medical students will be able to examine the lower part of women’s body for learning.

The lower part of the body will be examined from women’s vagina, ovaries or uterus to intestines, but if needed, doctors or students will also be able to expand the scope of the test.

At present, there is no law for the above test in many states of the United States, so doctors there examine patients briefly in an unconscious state without informing them, in which they also face fear and fear that action can be taken against them if the patient or his heirs know.

Apart from the United States, such tests do not have legal status in other countries, while in Islamic countries like Pakistan, such tests are considered valid.

Not only In Pakistan, but other countries in the region, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, China and Sri Lanka, such inspections are considered to be necessary.

What causes bleeding after menopause and how to treat it Is it dangerous all the time?

Bleeding or spotting after menopause is usually caused by harmless changes in the genital tract, but can indicate cancer in some women.

Bleeding after menopause is a condition that requires urgent medical attention, usually occurs around the age of 50. If there is no bleeding for 12 months, the woman has entered the postmenopausal period. Bleeding and spotting that occur one year after the last menstrual period are not normal.

Learn more at Bleeding after menopause is not always dangerous, but it should never be ignored

Bleeding after menopause – causes

  • hormone replacement therapy 
  • ovarian cysts 
  • uterine fibroids 
  • uterine polyps: 
  • atrophic vaginitis 
  • atrophic changes of the endometrium (uterine mucosa) 
  • Vaginal and/or uterine prolapse 
  • cancer of the vagina , cervix or body of the womb (endometrium). 
  • blood diseases, incl. bleeding disorders , e.g. hemophilia or von Willebrand disease
  • taking certain medicines, e.g. anticoagulants

Bleeding after menopause: diagnosis

In the case of bleeding or spotting after menopause, you should visit a gynecologist who should perform the following tests:

  • cervical examination
  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis (performed if changes are detected in the ultrasound examination)
  • Hysteroscopy – a study that allows you to assess the condition of the inner walls of the uterus
  • biopsy of the lining of the womb (endometrium)
  • histopathological examination of the collected fragments of the uterine mucosa

Treatment for bleeding following menopause

How you treat bleeding after menopause depends on what’s causing it. In the case of atrophic vaginitis, for example, hormone replacement therapy is used to make up for the lack of estrogen. When the atrophy isn’t too bad, moisturizers and lubricants work well. If bleeding after menopause is caused by uterine fibroids, painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs are used, and in some cases, hormonal drugs are used. They can also be taken out through surgery.

Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women

Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women, often developing asymptomatically and causing abnormal vaginal bleeding or difficulties in pregnancy.

Uterine fibroids are benign growths of the uterine lining. This is an extremely common occurrence. Fibroids are thought to affect 50-60% of women. Fibroids are caused by a combination of factors, including perimenopausal age, genetic factors, black race, menarche before the age of 12, obesity, high blood pressure, and a diet high in red meat, alcohol, and caffeine.

The signs of uterine fibroids

Clinical signs of uterine fibroids occur in less than half of women.It is estimated that 30-40% of women with fibroids complain of symptoms such as:

  • abnormal bleeding (heavy periods, breakthrough bleeding that can lead to iron deficiency anemia ),
  • abdominal pain ,
  • abdominal pressure,
  • a feeling of fullness in the pelvis,
  • urge to urinate,
  • frequent urination at night (nocturia)
  • constipation _
  • feeling of incomplete defecation,
  • difficulty getting pregnant
  • complications of pregnancy (miscarriage, abnormal position of the fetus).

Fibroids can grow up to 20-30 cm in diameter and compress nearby organs and nerves, resulting in difficulties with urination and constipation. They can also compress the large intestine, leading to constipation or pressure on the stool.

Uterine fibroids rupturing

The fibroid may rupture in extremely rare cases. This can occur as a result of a sprained fibroid, increased abdominal pressure, or an injury. A ruptured fibroid may cause the following symptoms:

  • severe abdominal pain,
  • increase in body temperature,
  • cold sweats
  • tachycardia
  • vaginal bleeding.

Although extremely rare, uterine fibroid rupture is a serious condition that requires urgent medical attention.

Uterine fibroids and bleeding

Abnormal bleeding is a common symptom of fibroids, often goes unnoticed. It can be more heavy or prolonged periods, or a different point in the cycle. Blood loss associated with fibroids can lead to anemia, so it is important to report it to the gynecologist.

How to treat uterine fibroids

Asymptomatic fibroids do not need to be treated. If the fibroid is asymptomatic but you monitor its growth at the doctor’s office and it has grown by about 1 cm in a year, there is no need to wait until it becomes massive or causes anemia.

Treatment of uterine fibroids includes:

  • Pharmacological treatment  
  • Non-surgical procedures 
  • Operative treatment 

Surgical methods, medications, and ultrasound beams are used to treat fibroids, but certain conditions must be met to qualify for the removal of fibroids by ultrasound.

  • fibroids should be in the anterior wall or fundus of the uterus,
  • number of fibroids: up to 3,
  • diameter of fibroids: 3-7 cm,
  • abdominal fat thickness < 2 cm.

What to avoid with fibroids?

If you have uterine fibroids, try to avoid:

  • red meat,
  • highly processed food,
  • sugar,
  • sweet drinks,
  • sweets,
  • animal fats,
  • caffeine,
  • alcohol.

Consequences of untreated uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids are usually harmless, but if left untreated, they can cause anemia due to iron loss. As a result, a woman may experience weakness, fatigue, and dizziness. Other consequences of untreated fibroids concern pregnancy. Complications such as infertility or pregnancy loss, as well as placental abruption, premature birth, or slow fetal growth, may occur.

Is uterine fibroid cancer?

Uterine myoma is not cancer; it is not malignant, and it does not spread. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous tumors. They are benign tumors composed of smooth muscle cells from the uterus or smooth muscle cells surrounding the uterus. A fibroid, on the other hand, can become malignant in extremely rare cases.

Uterine fibroids and pregnancy

Fibroids can cause difficulties in getting pregnant, preventing fertilization or implantation of a fertilized egg, hindering the proper positioning of the fetus, and even leading to miscarriages. One of the most disturbing symptoms is the rapid enlargement of the fibroid, which needs to be examined thoroughly.

Uterine fibroids and physical effort

Regular moderate exercise can prevent uterine fibroids by controlling hormone levels and weight, but be careful with intense exercise and overloading the body. Recommended exercises are yoga and aerobic exercise.

Symptoms of heart attack in women.

Heart attack in women can give different symptoms than in men. The symptom most associated with a heart attack is chest pain. In women, it may not appear. What to look for?

Myocardial infarction in women

Heart attack is a state of direct threat to health and life. If you experience typical symptoms, such as severe chest pain and breathing problems, you should contact your doctor as soon as possible.

Sometimes, however, a heart attack gives unusual symptoms that are easy to ignore. Women, due to the fact that heart attacks occur in them less often than in men, are more likely to ignore the symptoms, especially if they are nonspecific. Women may not experience chest pain. They may experience shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting or pain in the lower part of the chest.

Shallow breathing, which is often the first sign of a heart attack, is easily confused with a panic attack, especially when it is accompanied by anxiety and intense sweating. These two symptoms also indicate a heart attack.

Women may also experience muscle pain and sudden, extreme fatigue, as well as nausea and vomiting. It happens that due to non-specific symptoms, even a doctor has a problem at first with diagnosing a heart attack in a woman.

A heart attack is very dangerous, so you can not underestimate even the smallest problems. The sooner a woman goes to the doctor, the lower the chances of serious complications. A study conducted by Swiss researchers and published in the European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care shows that women wait an average of 37 minutes longer than men before contacting a doctor or going to the hospital. The study involved 4,000 people over a 16-year period. This is because non-specific symptoms can confuse the woman and her loved ones, which delays the call for help. This explains why there is a higher mortality rate from heart attack among women.

Symptoms of a heart attack that cannot be underestimated include :

  • difficulty breathing and shortness of breath
  • sweating, hard-to-define upper body pain
  • feeling of fullness, heartburn-like discomfort
  • nausea or vomiting
  • sudden weakness and dizziness
  • irregular heartbeat
  • tightness in the chest.

In the case of a heart attack, it is extremely important to implement treatment as soon as possible.

What helps with premenstrual syndrome?

The days before a woman’s period are frequently extremely stressful. Premenstrual syndrome follows (PMS). What actions can reduce the symptoms?

In the second half of their cycle, particularly the week leading up to their period, many women experience changes in their physical and psychological well-being. When symptoms are severe, a person’s ability to function is obviously compromised. The symptoms appear during the first few days of the period and then vanish, suggesting premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Each symptom is very unique, and they don’t always manifest in the same way throughout a cycle. Among the symptoms experienced by those who are affected are indigestion, water retention, sleep disorders, and muscle or headache pain. Additionally, mood swings from irritability to depression happen.

The cause of PMS is not fully understood. Apparently, the hormonal fluctuations during the female cycle play a role. Other connections are discussed.

Correctly interpreting complaints with PMS

Doctors recommend doing a thorough body examination and keeping a symptom and cycle diary. There are now numerous apps that enable fast, digital documentation, and the evaluation shows which symptoms are associated with the menstrual cycle. Data protection is particularly important, and tips on this can be found in the article “Data protection is feasible: Tips for using smartwatches and health apps safely”.

What options are there for PMS treatment?

PMS is frequently treated with dietary supplements and herbal preparations. However, their impact is frequently not sufficiently supported by science. Therefore, before using it, women should consult their doctor. 

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) can cause physical and emotional symptoms that can be managed with lifestyle changes and medications. Lifestyle changes include reducing salt and caffeine intake, exercising regularly, getting enough rest, and practicing stress-reducing exercises. Medications include antidepressants, NSAIDs, and diuretics. Natural remedies include herbal teas and homeopathic remedies. It is important to speak with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or medication.

The pill can stop menstrual cramps

Hormones can be used to stop symptoms, such as mood swings, sexual reluctance, and an increased risk of thrombosis. Preparations with a proportion of estrogen and progestin are particularly suitable. Hormone rings and patches have the same effect, but the hormone spiral is usually not suitable. It is important to weigh up whether a hormone preparation is the drug of choice with the gynecologist, as these drugs can lead to mood swings, sexual reluctance, and an increased risk of thrombosis.

Psychological complaints in the foreground

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the most severe form of PMS and affects up to 8% of women. It is caused by extreme irritability and depression before menses, and can be treated with the contraceptive pill and antidepressants from the serotonin reuptake inhibitors group. Psychotherapy can also help to accept the predisposition and manage it well in everyday life.

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Osteoporosis. Do you know how to protect yourself from it?

With osteoporosis, bones that used to be strong become soft, brittle, and more likely to break. At first, osteoporosis doesn’t show any signs, and a broken bone is often the first sign. Osteoporosis should be avoided because it can cause disability and a big drop in quality of life.

Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive disease of the skeletal system that can lead to disability. It is characterized by increased bone fragility due to a reduction in bone mineral density, which can lead to osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis is preceded by osteopenia, which is a decrease in bone mineral density.

Causes of osteoporosis

In the skeletal system, bone tissue is constantly being made and broken down. Osteoblasts, which make bone, and osteoclasts, which break down bone, are the two types of cells responsible for this. As people get older, the activity of osteoclast cells goes up, but the activity of osteogenic cells doesn’t keep up. Because of this, it leads to a slow loss of bone mass and the growth of osteoporosis. In other words, the natural ways that bones renew and grow are messed up.

Due to the causes causing disorders leading to osteoporosis, the disease is divided into two main types:

Involutional osteoporosis  

Type one:

Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women is the cause. Estrogen is a hormone that makes bone-building cells work and is involved in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.

Type two: 

The cause is advanced age and the natural weakening of calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, as well as vitamin D deficiency.

Secondary osteoporosis

Changes in lifestyle (like eating too much salt, not getting enough calcium and vitamin D, being overweight, or not getting enough exercise), taking certain medicines (like glucocorticosteroids, heparin, or anticonvulsants), and diseases that change bone tissue are all causes.

Osteoporosis signs and symptoms

The disease may stay dormant for a long time and not show any signs for years. Some symptoms are hard to notice. Many people with osteoporosis don’t know they have it until they break a bone.

In addition to fractures, symptoms of osteoporosis may include:

  • flattening of the vertebrae causing a rounded back (the so-called widow’s hump ),
  • reduction in height by up to several centimeters,
  • incorrect posture in the form of a tummy pushed forward,
  • pain in the back and spine (strong, sudden may even indicate a fracture of a weakened vertebra),
  • abdominal pain – when the ribs press on the internal organs.

The above symptoms indicate advanced osteoporosis. Because osteoporosis does not hurt (in the early stages), we often ignore the first symptoms of the disease.

Risk factors for osteoporosis

Osteoporosis can affect anyone. People with a family history of the disease are more at risk . Both genes and environmental factors increase the risk of developing osteoporosis.

Known risk factors for developing osteoporosis include:

  • slim and petite body build,
  • hormonal disorders – mainly thyroid disorders and a decrease in sex hormones, especially as a result of menopause,
  • age – after the age of 60, we have about 30% weaker bones than around the age of 30,
  • abuse of alcohol and beverages with caffeine and smoking – they impair calcium absorption and bone reconstruction,
  • a diet containing an excess of animal protein – increases the excretion of calcium in the urine,
  • taking certain medications, such as corticosteroids and high doses of thyroxine,
  • diseases – causing immobilization, as well as e.g. COPD or hyperparathyroidism.

Osteoporosis research

If you have signs of osteoporosis or are going through menopause, you should have your bones checked. Even a simple X-ray can show changes in advanced cases. Densitometry can find the disease in its early stages. Your doctor or an osteoporosis clinic will tell you where to go for free exams. Dual-energy X-rays (DXA) are used to take pictures for densitometry, which is the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Since bone tissue absorbs the radiation in different ways, a clear picture can be made. The test is very sensitive.

Based on the osteoporosis test, you get 3 values:

  • absolute bone mass (g/cm 2 ),
  • comparison of the patient’s BMD with the highest value obtained in young adults (T-score),
  • comparison of the patient’s BMD with the average age-appropriate value (Z-score).

Thanks to densitometry, the doctor can recognize normal condition, osteopenia or osteoporosis:

  • normal bone mass : T-score > (-) 1.0
  • osteopenia : T-score from (-) 1.0 to (-) 2.5
  • osteoporosis : T-score < (-) 2.5 without fractures
  • advanced osteoporosis : T-score < (-) 2.5 and existing fracture

Thus, osteoporosis is diagnosed when the T-score, which is a deviation from peak bone mass, falls below (-) 2.5 .

Treating osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is treated with pharmacological agents and supplementation, as well as prevention of injuries and falls. It cannot be cured, but the progression of the disease can be stopped. The cure depends on the cause.

Osteoporosis drugs

The main drugs used to treat osteoporosis are bisphosphonates and calcium, and vitamin D supplementation. Bisphosphonates are organophosphate compounds that inhibit bone resorption and prevent further loss of their mineral tissue.

 Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody whose action is based on binding and inhibiting the RANKL factor, responsible for the formation of osteoclastic cells. Teriparatide is a human parathyroid hormone that stimulates the bone formation process, increases the absorption of calcium in the intestines and improves the synthesis of calcitriol in the intestines. After the end of therapy, the patient takes other drugs, most often bisphosphonates.

Effects of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a serious condition that can lead to fractures and bone injuries. Fractures of the femur are the most dangerous, and are most common in people over 50 years of age. It can also lead to disability, chronic pain, kyphosis, reduced height, breathing disorders, and even death. Psychological problems such as depression and withdrawal from social life are also common. It is important to prevent and treat osteoporosis to stop the development of the disease.

Osteoporosis prevention

The skeleton builds and regenerates throughout life. However, after the age of 30, the repair processes slow down. Since then, bone mass has decreased by about 1% each year. In order to stay ahead of osteoporosis, it should be prevented as early as possible. A proper lifestyle can reduce bone loss by 1/3. To prevent osteoporosis:

  • be physically active – by loading your bones moderately, but systematically (e.g. while walking or jumping rope), you stimulate the growth of their mass, besides, you develop the muscles that support the skeleton,
  • put on a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D (these ingredients are necessary for building bones); let milk and its products, soy products, legumes, sardines and orange juice enriched with calcium be a permanent part of your menu,
  • say goodbye to drastic slimming diets – they cause calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and thus weaken the bones.

Treatment and causes of ovarian pain

Most of the time, ovarian pain is felt as a stabbing pain on the right or left side of the lower abdomen. Women sometimes say that both of their ovaries hurt at the same time. This type of illness can result from typical changes in a woman’s body, but it can also be a symptom of a disease like endometriosis, cysts, or inflammation of the appendages.

The pain from the ovaries is in the lower abdomen. A woman who is healthy has two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The gonad, which is the organ that makes the reproductive cells, is the ovary (ova in women). It responds to hormones and is important for a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Almost every woman has pain in her right or left ovary, or sometimes in both. Most of the time, the ovaries hurt before the period, during menstruation, and when they release an egg (approximately in the middle of the cycle). So, ovarian pain isn’t usually a sign of something serious and doesn’t always mean you need to see a gynecologist.

Pain in the ovary or ovaries right after your period may be more worrying. Then it is harder to explain it with changes in how the body works. If you have more symptoms, like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bloating, constipation, fever, dizziness, or urinary symptoms, you should see a doctor (urinary pressure, pain during urination). When these kinds of symptoms come along with ovarian pain, it’s often a sign of a medical problem.

Ovarian pain and endometriosis

Sometimes, ovarian pain has nothing to do with how the body works and is caused by a more serious disease. Endometriosis, in which the lining of the womb (the endometrium) grows outside the uterus, is a common cause. This is one of the main reasons why it’s hard to get pregnant. The main sign of the disease is abnormal bleeding, like heavy, painful periods and bleeding between periods.

Endometriosis is diagnosed by vaginal ultrasound , magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. Laparoscopy is the main method of treatment. Before surgery, painkillers are given to the patient to ease the pain caused by the disease.

Cervical erosion and ovarian discomfort

The cervix may also wear away, which can cause pain in the ovaries. An erosion is when a different kind of epithelium grows in the vagina instead of the normal kind. It is a common condition that affects up to one in four women, according to estimates. Besides ovarian pain, other signs of cervical erosion are:

spotting between menstrual cycles, 

  • discharge, 
  • pain during intercourse and spotting after intercourse , 
  • itching in the genital area.

The treatment of an erosion depends primarily on its size. In many cases, it does not require treatment. Tablets or pessaries are sometimes  used .

Other treatments include:

  • chemical coagulation (lubrication of the lesion with a chemical preparation),
  • burnout of the lesion with a laser or electricity,
  • cryotherapy (freezing). 

Ovarian pain and ovarian cyst

Another cause of pain can be ovarian cysts . In addition to pain, you may also experience: 

  • menstrual cycle disorders, 
  • problems with urination, 
  • pelvic pain, 
  • finger pains, 
  • bleeding not related to menstruation, 
  • bloating, 
  • nausea and vomiting. 

But these symptoms aren’t very specific, so ovarian cysts are usually found during a regular gynecological exam. We still don’t know why the changes happened. Some people believe that untreated inflammatory changes and genetic factors are to blame for the cysts. How ovarian cysts are treated depends mostly on how big and how many there are. Most small sores go away on their own. The ones that are bigger and more numerous need surgery.

Ovarian pain and polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, is a hormonal disorder in which too many male sex hormones make the ovaries work too much. It is also the most common reason why people can’t have kids. Polycystic ovary syndrome does not cause pain in the ovaries. People with this disease have trouble getting pregnant, have irregular periods, and often have too much hair growth (hirsutism) and acne.

Ovarian pain and acute oophoritis

Another name for this is adnexitis. It is a sickness that mostly affects women who are sexually active. Bacteria in the appendages are what causes the disease. Most of the time, they get there sexually, but they can also get there during menstruation, childbirth, or gynecological procedures. In addition to ovarian pain that gets worse during sexual activity, these other things can happen:

  • fever or subfebrile condition, 
  • high heart rate
  • nausea, 
  • vomiting, 
  • diarrhea. 

The disease is diagnosed on the basis of a gynecological examination. Treatment usually consists of  giving the patient antibiotics . You can also use paracetamol or ibuprofen as an analgesic.

If acute inflammation of the ovaries is not properly treated, it can turn into chronic inflammation of the ovaries, which in turn can result in the formation of a cyst.

Pain in the left ovary, pain in the right ovary—what does it mean?

Ovarian pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as constipation, enteritis, ectopic pregnancy, renal colic, changes in the ovary, hernia, pyelonephritis, appendicitis, small and large intestine diseases, renal colic, pyelonephritis, ectopic pregnancy, abscess or hernia. It is important not to confuse physiological ovarian pain with another condition. Pain in the left ovary may indicate constipation, enteritis, ectopic pregnancy, renal colic, changes in the ovary, hernia, pyelonephritis, appendicitis, small and large intestine diseases, renal colic, pyelonephritis, ectopic pregnancy, abscess or hernia.

Pain in the ovaries before period, sore ovaries after period

Ovarian pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as constipation, enteritis, ectopic pregnancy, renal colic, changes in the ovary, hernia, pyelonephritis, appendicitis, small and large intestine diseases, renal colic, pyelonephritis, ectopic pregnancy, abscess or hernia. It is important not to confuse physiological ovarian pain with another condition. Pain in the left ovary may indicate constipation, enteritis, ectopic pregnancy, renal colic, changes in the ovary, hernia, pyelonephritis, appendicitis, small and large intestine diseases, renal colic, pyelonephritis, ectopic pregnancy, abscess or hernia.

Ovarian pain and the onset of pregnancy

Pain in the ovaries can happen at any time during pregnancy, but most women notice it right away. Pain in the uterus and light bleeding can happen very early in pregnancy. This shows that the fertilized egg has most likely taken root in the wall of the uterus. This is called a “spotting” for implantation. Pain in the ovaries during pregnancy can also be a sign of something wrong, like an ectopic pregnancy, a cyst, or inflammation of the appendages. Some of these conditions are dangerous for both the pregnant woman and the foetus. If you have abdominal pain, you should see your doctor.

Ovarian pain and cancer

Ovarian pain is a common complaint, but it can sometimes be a sign of something serious, like cancer. Because it is found so late, ovarian cancer is a dangerous type of cancer. It should be noted that at first, there are no signs of it. Only when the tumor grows and puts pressure on the tissues around it does the woman start to feel sick enough to go to the doctor. A lot of the time, ovarian cancer is found by accident during a regular ultrasound.

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