Adnexitis : symptoms and treatment of inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes

Heavy menstruation and intense, cramping abdominal pain are two signs of adnexitis. Most frequently, untreated intimate infections lead to adnexitis. Young, sexually active women between the ages of 15 and 30 are frequently affected. Antibiotics are absolutely necessary for the disease’s treatment.

Adnexitis is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries caused by a bacterial infection. It is diagnosed in 1 in 100 women every year, but many cases go undiagnosed. Infection usually occurs via the ascending route from the lower part of the reproductive tract, affecting the cervix and uterus first.

Adnexitis – symptoms

When the appendages are first infected, acute inflammation develops.  The main symptoms of adnexitis are:

  • very strong, cramping abdominal pain,  more specifically lower abdominal pain ,
  • fever (usually above 38°C),
  • bad mood.

There are also often:

  • vomiting,
  • pain during intercourse , worse with deep penetration
  • intense pain when pressing on the abdomen,
  • heavier than usual menstruation,
  • spotting ,
  • intense discharge.

What causes adnexitis?

Bacteria are to blame for the disease’s onset: gonorrhea, chlamydia, and, less frequently, Mycoplasma genitalium, E. coli, or streptococci. Adnexitis is most commonly caused by an intimate sexually transmitted infection. As a result, excessive sexual activity, not wearing a condom, and changing partners all increase the risk of ovarian and fallopian tube inflammation. Menstruation, childbirth, puerperium, miscarriage, and many gynecological treatments all promote appendage inflammation.

Identification of adnexitis

A vaginal ultrasound may be performed by a gynecologist to diagnose inflammation of the adnexa , however, the disease can only be diagnosed by laparoscopy and swab collection. Additional tests are also performed, such as morphology, urine analysis, and inflammatory markers.

Treatment of adnexitis

Adnexitis is treated by taking antibiotics, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory medications orally. A hospital stay is essential in severe cases of disease and in pregnant women. If the body’s response to antibiotic treatment is inadequate, the doctor will recommend surgical treatment, such as laparoscopy or puncture and drainage (in the case of an abscess).

Additional recommendations are usually:

  • easily digestible diet – because as a result of infection and antibiotic therapy, you may have stomach problems (especially diarrhea or bloating),
  • wearing warm clothes – cooling of the abdomen and kidneys aggravates symptoms,
  • drinking plenty of fluids – vomiting and fever contribute to dehydration,
  • taking care of intimate hygiene – not to create favorable conditions for the development of bacteria,
  • rest – to regenerate your strength and fight the infection faster,
  • abstaining from intercourse – it is painful at this time, and may also favor the re-influx of microorganisms.

Effects of adenexitis

It must be remembered that the disease must be treated as quickly as possible, or it will cause major problems. Adnexitis, if left untreated, can have catastrophic implications. such as:

  • abscess
  • adhesions in the pelvis,
  • fistulas,
  • peritonitis,
  • bowel obstruction,
  • infertility,
  • ectopic pregnancy
  • chronic pain.

Many of them are very difficult to treat, so it is not worth underestimating the symptoms of adnexitis. 

What to do when the problem returns?

If acute adnexitis is not properly treated, the symptoms will return. Persistent adnexitis may contribute to the production of adhesions in the fallopian tubes, resulting in difficulties conceiving. In the case of reoccurring infections, therapy is used as in acute inflammation, followed by the so-called stimulation treatment to deal with adhesions. Your doctor may recommend that you see:

  • irradiation and local heating,
  • mud treatments ,
  • terapuls, i.e. treatment using a device that generates a magnetic field,
  • surgical unblocking of the fallopian tubes .

Inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries (adnexitis)

Lower abdominal pain, fever, and discharge are typical signs of fallopian tube and ovarian inflammation. Chlamydia and other bacteria are frequently the triggers. Infertility is a possibility if treatment is delayed.

Adnexitis is a serious gynecological disease that is particularly common in young, sexually active women up to their mid-twenties. It is caused by a bacterial infection and is usually treated with antibiotics. Symptoms include fever, pain in the lower abdomen, severe malaise, nausea, and vomiting. 

How are fallopian tube inflammation symptoms recognized?

Adnexitis symptoms can vary greatly from person to person. The infection can go almost undetected in some women. In other instances, the predicament is fatal. In any case, if you experience symptoms, you should visit a gynecologist right away.

The following signs point to an inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen, often unilateral
  • the pain can radiate
  • nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • strong feeling of illness
  • possibly (smelling) vaginal discharge

Adnexitis is most often caused by bacteria. They reach the fallopian tube and ovary in different ways:

  • Ascending infection : The bacteria come from the outside and travel through the vagina to the fallopian tubes and ovaries. This can happen during a sexual act or after a gynecological procedure, like a scraping or putting in a spiral hysteroscope.
  • Descending infection : Inflammation spreads from a neighboring organ to the female genital organs – for example, from the appendix in the case of appendicitis.
  • Hematogenous Infection : Pathogens are spread through the blood. Genital tuberculosis is an example.

Adnexitis is a common infection in young women, especially those who have unprotected sexual contact. Infection with chlamydia or gonococci, a lack of estrogen, a weakened immune system, and metabolic diseases can all contribute to the risk of adnexitis.

How does the doctor make a diagnosis?

Gynecologists need to do a thorough exam and talk to the patient to diagnose inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Changes in sexual partners or gynecological procedures could indicate adnexitis.

Adnexitis is characterized by cervical sliding pain during gynecological examination, which can be detected with a smear from the vagina and cervix and ultrasound examination of fluid accumulations.

Adnexitis is often caused by inflammation in the fallopian tubes and ovaries, and a reflection (laparoscopy) of the pelvis can be used to diagnose it. An endoscope is used to look at organs in the area of the pelvis through a small cut in the abdominal wall.

What helps with fallopian tube inflammation?

When the fallopian tubes and ovaries are inflamed, it is best to stay in the hospital as an inpatient. Symptoms of a pelvic inflammatory disease can be similar to those of an ectopic pregnancy or appendicitis. During treatment, it is best to stay in bed and not have sexual relations. Things that don’t belong must be taken out.

Treatment with antibiotics

The drug treatment of fallopian tube and ovarian inflammation is mainly carried out with antibiotics. A swab from the vagina and cervix is used to determine the sensitivity of the bacteria to certain antibiotics. The duration of therapy can be up to three weeks. In the case of sexually transmitted pathogens, appropriate treatment of the partner is also advisable. Home remedies such as heat applications, bed rest, physical rest, and sufficient fluid intake can have a supportive effect.

Tubal Inflammation: What Complications Occur?

Adnexitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, which can lead to complications such as accumulation of pus (abscesses) in the fallopian tubes or ovaries, inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis), and blood poisoning or sepsis. Adhesions can occur as a late consequence of inflammation, which can cause pain and block the passage of the egg from the ovary to the uterus. Unrecognized fallopian tube and ovarian infections are a common cause of unwanted childlessness. Regular check-ups by the gynecologist and the consistent use of condoms can protect against infections and reduce the risk of adnexitis.

%d bloggers like this: