What causes bleeding after menopause and how to treat it Is it dangerous all the time?

Bleeding or spotting after menopause is usually caused by harmless changes in the genital tract, but can indicate cancer in some women.

Bleeding after menopause is a condition that requires urgent medical attention, usually occurs around the age of 50. If there is no bleeding for 12 months, the woman has entered the postmenopausal period. Bleeding and spotting that occur one year after the last menstrual period are not normal.

Learn more at Bleeding after menopause is not always dangerous, but it should never be ignored

Bleeding after menopause – causes

  • hormone replacement therapy 
  • ovarian cysts 
  • uterine fibroids 
  • uterine polyps: 
  • atrophic vaginitis 
  • atrophic changes of the endometrium (uterine mucosa) 
  • Vaginal and/or uterine prolapse 
  • cancer of the vagina , cervix or body of the womb (endometrium). 
  • blood diseases, incl. bleeding disorders , e.g. hemophilia or von Willebrand disease
  • taking certain medicines, e.g. anticoagulants

Bleeding after menopause: diagnosis

In the case of bleeding or spotting after menopause, you should visit a gynecologist who should perform the following tests:

  • cervical examination
  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis (performed if changes are detected in the ultrasound examination)
  • Hysteroscopy – a study that allows you to assess the condition of the inner walls of the uterus
  • biopsy of the lining of the womb (endometrium)
  • histopathological examination of the collected fragments of the uterine mucosa

Treatment for bleeding following menopause

How you treat bleeding after menopause depends on what’s causing it. In the case of atrophic vaginitis, for example, hormone replacement therapy is used to make up for the lack of estrogen. When the atrophy isn’t too bad, moisturizers and lubricants work well. If bleeding after menopause is caused by uterine fibroids, painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs are used, and in some cases, hormonal drugs are used. They can also be taken out through surgery.

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