APC resistance can lead to abortion in women

Activated protein C (APC) resistance is a condition that causes the blood to clot more easily. This is because the body’s natural anticoagulant system is malfunctioning. APC is a protein that aids in the breakdown of blood clots. Blood clots can form more easily when it is not functioning properly.

Five to eight percent of the population has APC resistance, which is the most common risk factor for venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that can be found in a lab. This can also make women more likely to have an abortion.

Factor V Leiden variant is a genetic change in the gene responsible for coagulation factor V, which changes factor V and its binding sites for activated protein C (APC). APC is an inhibitor of blood clotting.

Resistance to APC increases the tendency to clot, which is a risk factor for thrombosis. Other risk factors such as immobility, prolonged sitting, smoking, and the pill are also decisive.

Thrombosis is three to four times more likely to happen to people who have the changed gene on one of their chromosomes. People with the changed gene on both sets of chromosomes are 60–80 times more likely to get thrombosis. Swedish doctor Bjorn Dahlbeck found out about APC resistance. Factor V Leiden variant was named after the Dutch city of Leiden, where the genetic flaw was found.

 how is factor V Leiden variant and APC resistance identified?

The doctor will recommend testing for possible APC resistance, especially if

  • thromboses occur without any external cause
  • younger patients have a thrombosis
  • Thrombosis often occurs within the family
  • Thrombosis occurs in unusual places
  • spontaneous abortion occurred

APC resistance and the Factor V Leiden variant: how are they managed?

There is no cure for Factor V Leiden variant. However, risk factors that favor the development of thrombosis can be minimized.

This includes the following measures: 

Smoking should be prohibited. The use of birth control pills is linked to an increased risk of thrombosis. The benefits and risks should be carefully balanced. 

Thrombosis prophylaxis with compression stockings is recommended in high-risk situations such as long-haul flights, and additional prevention (prophylaxis) with heparin injections into the subcutaneous tissue to thin the blood is also possible. In the case of spontaneous or recurrent thrombosis, the doctor may also recommend long-term anticoagulant therapy.


Thrombosis – symptoms, treatment, what not to do

Thrombosis is a common problem, and it affects millions of people around the world each year. The exact number of people affected is unknown, but it is estimated that between 10 and 20% of people will experience a blood clot at some point in their lives.

A blood clot that forms in a blood artery or vein is referred to as thrombosis. If the clot, also known as a thrombus, becomes dislodged and moves to other regions of your body, such as your lungs or brain, it can cause major difficulties.

Thrombosis symptoms vary depending on where the clot is placed in your body. Swelling, discomfort, and redness in the affected area are common symptoms. If you see any of these symptoms, you should seek medical assistance right once.

Thrombosis is often treated with drugs that prevent the clot from expanding and new clots from developing. Surgery may be required in some circumstances to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood artery.

While treatment is critical, it is also critical to avoid activities that increase your risk of developing thrombosis. Smoking, sitting for long periods of time without moving, and not exercising frequently are all things to avoid.

To avoid thrombosis in the first place, implement modest lifestyle adjustments like obtaining regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and quitting smoking. By taking these precautions, you can lower your chances of getting a blood clot and staying healthy.

What are Thrombosis symptoms?

Asymptomatic or minor symptoms of vein thrombosis are common. Calf pain that worsens with walking is a common early symptom. Thrombosis causes typical symptoms in half of patients, most often affecting one leg:

  • swelling of the ankle , foot or calf, and even the entire leg,
  • leg pain that worsens with walking but goes away with immobilization
  • tenderness and soreness to the touch,
  • redness of the skin of the leg or its increased temperature (the other – healthy leg – then has a normal temperature).

In the remaining patients, thrombosis is asymptomatic. However , the patient may feel tiredness , chest pain, and shortness of breath due to hypoxia .

In 70% of cases, swelling in one leg is associated with thrombosis. If the swelling affects both limbs, another cause should be suspected, or vena cava thrombosis has developed (in the abdomen).

Low-grade fever or fever may accompany thrombosis (due to inflammation around the vein). The ongoing disease in the vein causes hardening, which can be felt beneath the fingers.

At rest, venous thrombosis can cause pain in the limb under pressure, as well as pain even when the leg is stationary. The patient may also notice a widening of the superficial veins that persists when the leg is lifted.

Treatment of thrombosis

Vein thrombosis is treated conservatively, pharmacologically, and sometimes surgically.

The primary treatment for thrombosis is to take anticoagulants (or anticoagulants, e.g. warfarin, heparin). Anti-inflammatory drugs, pain relievers, and antibiotics are also prescribed by the doctor. Thrombosis treatment can last several months or a lifetime.

Who is most at risk of thrombosis?

The risk of deep vein thrombosis  increases after the age of 45 , but the disease can also affect younger people. The probability of its occurrence is increased by:

  • hereditary tendencies,
  • the use of certain medications, e.g. hormonal contraception or hormone replacement therapy,
  • obesity and sedentary work,
  • surgery, injuries (e.g. fractures) or prolonged immobilization due to illness,
  • trip lasting more than 4 hours by plane, car or train ( thrombosis and flight by plane ),
  • pregnancy and postpartum period,
  • certain diseases, such as cancer or thrombophilia (tendency to form blood clots).

What not to do with thrombosis? 

When your doctor diagnoses thrombosis, you should change your lifestyle. With thrombosis, you must not:

  • stand or sit still for a long time
  • wear tight clothes that impede blood flow in the limbs,
  • smoke cigarettes,
  • do contact sports, as anticoagulants increase the risk of bleeding.

Thrombosis – how to reduce the risk of getting sick?

To avoid deep vein thrombosis, it is worth taking care of several factors. The principles of disease prevention include:

  • maintaining a healthy weight,
  • regular physical activity (preferably 4-5 times a week). Above all, exercises involving the muscles of the legs are recommended, e.g. walking, jogging, cycling,
  • avoiding sitting for long hours – if your work requires it, take short breaks every hour,
  • conscientious adherence to doctors’ recommendations after surgery or injury – this applies in particular to taking injections with anticoagulant heparin and returning to activity as soon as possible,
  • treatment of leg varicose veins – although varicose veins result from problems with superficial (and not deep) veins, they indicate circulatory disorders in the lower limbs.

To avoid venous thrombosis, stay hydrated, wear loose, non-compressive clothing before a long journey, and tense your calf muscles, move your fingers and feet frequently while sitting, and avoid sleeping in a sitting position. You should also avoid alcohol and caffeine on longer journeys because they have a diuretic effect.

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Smartphone app that can detect blood clotting.

It was created by its creator Shyam Golkota

It already contains a chemical and copper microscopic particles in a bowl smaller than a shirt button. Now it is shaken by adding a small amount of blood to it and installing it on a smartphone. A small motor vibrates in the earphones. In this process, thanks to the smartphone camera app keeps noting the condition of thickening in the blood. After a few minutes, the app automatically reveals the risk of blood clots, because when the blood thickens due to vibration, the movement of copper particles in it is minimized. If the risk of blood clots is high, the movement of the particles stops completely.

Young scientists at the University of Washington have devise 30$ home test that can predict blood clots. Photo: University of Washington

Blood clots are a direct cause of high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. Now with a low cost app and a simple device, a drop of blood sample can be used to detect the tendency to become lumpy in it.

The study was conducted by a young student at the University of Washington. The accuracy ratio is the same as the traditional and expensive test. It can even be used at home.

It was created by its creator Shyam Golkota and cost only $30. The most important thing in this test, which works with the vibration of a smartphone, is the algorithm that monitors the process of blood clotting.

Although blood clotting and clotting tests are performed all over the world, people who suffer from it need such tests again and again. In this way, thanks to the smartphone test, by checking the concentration of blood at home, heart attack and stroke can be prevented.

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