Women with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy increase risk of type 2 diabetes.

Women who are first diagnosed with carbohydrate intolerance in the form of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Here are some things they should do to reduce their risk:

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Women who have gestational diabetes should work to lose weight after their pregnancy and maintain a healthy weight throughout their lives.
  • Eat a healthy diet. A healthy diet includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. It is also important to limit processed foods, sugary drinks, and unhealthy fats.
  • Exercise regularly. Exercise helps to control blood sugar levels and can also help to lose weight. Women who have gestational diabetes should aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week.
  • Get regular checkups. Women who have gestational diabetes should see their doctor regularly for blood sugar checks and other tests. This will help to catch any problems early on and prevent them from getting worse.

If you have gestational diabetes, it is important to talk to your doctor about your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. They can help you develop a plan to reduce your risk and keep your health in good condition.

Here are some additional tips for women who have had gestational diabetes:

  • Breastfeed your baby. Breastfeeding can help to lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
  • Avoid smoking. Smoking can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Manage stress. Stress can also increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as exercise, yoga, or meditation.

By following these tips, you can reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life

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The risk factors associated with diabetes and eye health

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects millions of people worldwide. One of the most common complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, a condition that affects the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. This is why it is crucial for diabetic patients to see an ophthalmologist annually. An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who specializes in eye and vision care. They can diagnose and treat diabetic retinopathy early, before it causes any permanent damage to the eyes.

Explain the connection between diabetes and eye health

. High levels of glucose in the blood can damage the small blood vessels in the eyes, causing them to leak or become blocked. This can lead to vision problems and even blindness if left untreated. In fact, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults in the United States. Other eye problems that can occur in diabetic patients include cataracts and glaucoma. Regular eye exams can help detect these issues early on and prevent further damage to the eyes. Overall, managing diabetes and maintaining good eye health go hand in hand, making annual visits to an ophthalmologist a

Understanding Diabetes and Eye Health

 -  the risk factors associated with diabetes and eye health

In addition to high levels of glucose in the blood, there are other risk factors associated with diabetes and eye health. These include high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and smoking. These factors can further increase the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy and other eye problems. It is important for individuals with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels through medication, diet, and exercise to reduce the risk of eye complications. Quitting smoking is also crucial for overall eye health. By addressing these risk factors and regularly monitoring eye health, individuals with diabetes can reduce their risk of vision

 - Discuss how high blood sugar levels can damage the eyes

High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, leading to diabetic retinopathy. This condition occurs when the blood vessels in the retina become damaged and leak fluid or blood, causing vision problems. In addition, high blood sugar levels can also cause damage to the lens of the eye, leading to cataracts. Cataracts occur when the lens becomes cloudy, causing vision to become blurred or hazy. It is important for individuals with diabetes to maintain good blood sugar control to reduce the risk of these eye complications. Regular eye exams can also help detect any early signs of diabetic retinopathy.

 - Provide statistics on the prevalence of diabetic eye diseases

According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in the United States. It affects approximately 28.5% of people with diabetes over the age of 40. Additionally, people with diabetes are 2-5 times more likely to develop cataracts than those without diabetes. These statistics highlight the importance of managing blood sugar levels and receiving regular eye exams for individuals with diabetes. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or delay the progression of these eye diseases.

Importance of Annual Eye Exams

 - Emphasize the importance of early detection and treatment of diabetic eye diseases

Annual eye exams are crucial for individuals with diabetes, as they can detect any early signs of diabetic eye diseases. Early detection is key to preventing or delaying the progression of these eye diseases, which can lead to blindness if left untreated. Regular eye exams can also help monitor any changes in vision and ensure that corrective measures are taken in a timely manner. It is recommended that individuals with diabetes receive a comprehensive eye exam at least once a year to maintain good eye health and prevent any complications.

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World Health Organization warns of the danger of artificial sweeteners

If you also use artificial sweeteners in your food or drinks, such as tea or coffee, be ware, because its use can have serious health effects.

According to a foreign news agency AFP report, the World Health Organization says that artificial sweeteners do not help in weight loss.

New guidelines were issued by the United Nations Health Agency, warning about the use of artificial sweeteners.

The World Health Organization said that after reviewing the available evidence, it was found that artificial sweeteners do not have long-term benefits in terms of weight loss for young people and children.

In addition, the use of artificial sweeteners increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and death at an early age.

Remember that millions of people use artificial sweeteners in coffee, diet soda and food items every day, because they believe that the use of sugar increases weight, so artificial sweeteners are considered the best alternative to sugar.

However, artificial sweeteners can pose serious health risks.

Francesco Branca, director of nutrition and food safety at the World Health Organization, stressed that replacing global sugar with artificial sweeteners does not have long-term health benefits and does not lead to weight loss.

He says that if people want to reduce sugar consumption or are looking for alternatives, they should use fruits that include natural sweeteners.

He said that artificial sweeteners have no nutritional value, people should reduce the use of sugar from the beginning to improve health.

At the same time, the UN health agency stressed that the guidelines issued by them should be considered conditional because it is difficult to draw concrete conclusions due to the complications caused by the use of artificial sweeteners and the investigation done in this regard.

Nutritionists also pointed to the WHO report, according to them, the report was based on observational studies that could not establish a direct link between artificial sweeteners and weight or disease.

Nita Foruhy, a nutritionist and epidemiologist at the University of Cambridge in the UK, stressed that artificial sweeteners can be used to control weight in the short term.

He said that the main objective is to get long-term benefits, and in the future, the use of artificial sweeteners to prevent diseases like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not appropriate.

Eating habits can reduce type 2 diabetes |

New York: New advice for diabetic patients is not only to take care of their teeth but also to chew the food well. This can reduce the severity of the disease.

Mehmet Iskan of the University of Buffalo, New York, at the Public Library of Science, has asked sugar doctors to get their patient’s teeth examined. Make sure that the patient chews and eats his food well. This habit can help a lot in reducing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients.

A total of 94 patients were evaluated in this small study who were all suffering from type 2 diabetes. Patients who had full teeth and admitted to chewing food well, their blood glucose levels were slightly lower than others. However, those whose teeth were broken or affected from place to place had abnormally high blood sugar levels.

It is estimated that people who do not chew and eat food may have up to 2% higher glucose levels in their blood than others. But experts insist that increasing glucose by one or two percent is also not uncommon. Because increasing the blood sugar of diabetics by just one percent can increase the risk of heart disease by 40 percent and in the same proportion itself.

This is because the process of digestion starts in the mouth. Nutrients are trapped in the teeth, they get saliva and it also affects the release of insulin. That’s why new research emphasizes chewing food.

Diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes that can lead to amputation

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a common side effect of diabetes and a leading cause of illness and death. If you don’t treat DFUs, they can lead to infection, gangrene, and even amputation. DFUs are caused by many different things, such as neuropathy, vascular disease, and slow wound healing. DFUs must be found early and treated correctly in order to avoid complications and improve patient outcomes. In this article, we will talk about how DFUs are spread, what causes them, how they show up in the body, and how to treat them.

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9 dangerous complications of diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that is becoming more prevalent. It is extremely dangerous, and its complications can even result in death! Discover the 9 most dangerous diabetes complications! Diabetes complications are frequently the result of ignoring treatment and diet. Examine the dangers of untreated diabetes.

1. Acidification of the body

When glucose cannot provide energy, the body begins to produce it by burning fat. Acid-forming ketone bodies are one of the byproducts of their combustion. When their number rapidly increases, we have ketoacidosis. This condition causes a variety of unpleasant symptoms (nausea, vomiting, headaches, and malaise), and, in severe cases, can result in loss of consciousness, coma, and even death.

2. Hypoglycemia

The most common causes of hypoglycemia, or a drop in blood glucose below normal, are incorrect medication dosages or noncompliance with the diabetic diet. Hypoglycemia is characterized by fatigue, anxiety, and excessive sweating. In severe cases, it can result in a diabetic coma and even death.

3. Damage to blood vessels

When blood glucose levels stay high for a long time, blood vessels get hurt. Capillaries and small blood vessels (microangiopathies), as well as medium and large arteries can be hurt by these problems (macroangiopathies). A number of complications that can happen to people with diabetes are directly caused by microangiopathies and macroangiopathies.

4. Vision problems

High levels of sugar hurt the tiny blood vessels in the retina, which is the thin membrane that receives visual signals. This change is called diabetic retinopathy, and it causes vision problems (foggy vision, spots) that get worse over time, cataracts, and even total loss of vision.

5. Kidney problems

Diabetes can also cause damage to the glomeruli, which are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter the blood. These changes are called diabetic nephropathy, and they help cause kidney failure to happen over time. In the later stages of diabetic nephropathy, you may need dialysis or even a kidney transplant.

6. Nerve damage

Microangiopathy can result in neuropathy, or damage to the nerve fibers. Patients with diabetic neuropathy often feel like their hands and feet are burning, itching, and numb. Most nights, these symptoms get worse. Neuropathies can affect large nerves in the later stages of the disease, which can lead to heart problems, digestive problems, or even impotence.

7. Diabetic foot syndrome

When blood vessels are damaged, blood flow to the feet gets worse. This, along with the tendency to form blood clots, leads to tissue hypoxia. This makes necrotic changes more likely to happen. Also, nerve damage changes the way you feel things, so cuts and wounds don’t hurt as much as they normally would.

8. Heart diseases

Macroangiopathies caused by diabetes lead to the development of atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries, which bring blood to the heart. Because of these changes, the blood flow through the arteries gets worse, which can lead to ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction.

9. Stroke

As atherosclerosis gets worse, the blood vessels that bring blood to the brain may also get narrower. If this organ doesn’t get enough blood, it can cause paralysis and stroke.

9 most important blood tests for monitoring diabetes

Diabetes can be a difficult disease to live with, but it does not have to be difficult. To keep sugar in check, it is important to change lifestyles and pay attention to check-ups.

9 basic blood tests you should do if you have diabetes .

1. HbA1

This is a glycated hemoglobin test (do it twice a year). This test shows your average blood sugar over the last few months.

2. Creatinine

Get your creatinine levels checked once a year. Its elevated level could indicate a problem with the urinary system (poorly controlled diabetes can lead to nephropathy, i.e. kidney damage).

3. Lipidogram

Diabetes has been linked to atherosclerosis. As a result, cholesterol levels must be kept under control. You can accomplish this by performing a lipid profile once a year.

4. Blood pressure

Hypertension is frequently present with diabetes. As a result, frequent blood pressure measurements are required, ideally at each medical check-up.

5. Eye examination

Elevated sugar can damage the retina. Therefore, to prevent vision problems, it is better to have your eyes checked every year.

6. Resting ECG

For people over the age of 35, it is worthwhile to have them done once a year (once every 2 years for people over 35). The doctor orders this test to ensure that the patient does not have ischemic heart disease, which can develop alongside diabetes.

It allows you to check blood flow, which may be difficult due to damage to the vessels by sugar . It is worth doing it once every two years in people over 35 years of age.

8. Neurological examination with the assessment of vibration sensation

Do them once or twice a year. It reflects the function of peripheral nerves (these can be damaged by diabetes).

9. Feet examination

Diabetic foot syndrome is frequently associated with diabetes. As a result, during each visit, it is necessary to check the legs for any wounds or scratches that could indicate the onset of the disease.

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Diabetes complications: signs, classifications, and ways to avoid them?

Diabetes complications: signs, classifications, and ways to avoid them?

Diabetes most frequently results in complications when untreated or improperly treated. They are separated into acute and chronic conditions. Hyperglycemia is the causal agent in the emergence of these issues (constantly elevated blood glucose levels). What kinds of diabetes complications exist and how can they be avoided?

Diabetes complications: types

Diabetes complications are broken down into acute (early) and chronic (late) complications. Diabetes complications are categorized as either acute or chronic, depending on when they first appear. Long-term hyperglycemia leads to chronic complications.

Acute complications of diabetes include: 

  • Hyperglycemia: When the blood glucose concentration rises above 100 mg/dl on an empty stomach and above 140 mg/dl after a meal, it is considered to be above generally accepted standards. When diabetes is treated improperly, such as with a poorly chosen diet, the wrong insulin dose, taking medications that interact with antidiabetic medications, skipping a dose of insulin, or not taking medications that lower blood sugar levels, diabetics frequently experience hyperglycemia.
  • Hypoglycemia – a condition where blood sugar levels fall below normal – when the blood glucose level is below 70 mg/dl. It can be caused by skipping meals or taking too much insulin. 
  • ketoacidosis—most often, it is a consequence of poorly treated diabetes. Type 1 diabetics are most at risk. Untreated ketoacidosis leads to a diabetic coma and even death. DKA occurs when the body doesn’t have enough insulin to allow blood sugar into the cells for use as energy. Instead, the body breaks down fat for fuel, a process that produces acids called ketones. When too many ketones are produced too fast, they can build up to dangerous levels in the body.
  • Lactic acidosis: excessive accumulation of lactate in the body It is most often the result of the use of antidiabetic drugs from the biguanide group in patients suffering from atherosclerotic lesions or renal failure. 

The chronic complications of diabetes include: 

  • diabetic retinopathy –persistently high blood glucose levels lead to changes in the blood vessels of the retina. It is very dangerous, because in the initial phase it does not cause any symptoms and leads to blindness. 
  • diabetic nephropathy –chronic hyperglycemia leads to increased blood flow through the glomeruli and the accumulation of many substances in them and blood vessels, leading to kidney damage or failure. Initially, the disease is asymptomatic, and symptoms appear only in the advanced stage of the disease. 
  • Diabetic neuropathy –this is nerve damage caused by persistently high levels of glucose in the blood. In type 2 diabetics, the course of neuropathy is gradual and slowly manifests itself, while in the case of type 1 diabetes, symptoms appear very quickly. 
  • stroke and myocardial infarction –atherosclerotic changes in the coronary vessels in diabetics significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. 
  • diabetic foot –damage to the nerves of the lower limb and its ischemia leads to diabetic foot syndrome. The consequence of neglecting the diabetic foot may be its amputation.  
  • frequentinfections– high blood glucose promotes the development of fungal diseases, mainly candidiasis.  
  • tooth and gum diseases– diabetics are more susceptible to inflammation of the gums and teeth caused by infections (higher concentration of glucose in saliva is a good breeding ground for fungi and bacteria). 
  • complications in pregnancy– unregulated diabetes in pregnancy poses a risk to both mother and baby. The child is at risk of developing a syndrome of malformations, while the mother is at risk of miscarriage or premature birth. 
  • cancer– this may be due to the accumulation of more free radicals in the body or the fact that diabetes is tested more often.  

Unusual signs of diabetes

Thirst and frequent urination are signs most people know about. Here are other, and less well-known symptoms of diabetes.

When you have diabetes, you don’t have enough insulin, so your blood sugar gets too high. So, the signs of diabetes that aren’t treated are actually signs of high blood sugar. The most common signs of high blood sugar are thirst and going to the bathroom often, but there are other signs as well. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have the same kinds of symptoms.

The following symptoms are described in more detail in this article:

  • Thirst and frequent urination
  • Bedwetting
  • Weight loss, fatigue and lethargy
  • Changed vision
  • Infections
  • Poor wound healing
  • Changed sensation in toes and feet
  • Acid poisoning

Thirst and frequent urination

Let’s start with the two most common signs. For the sugar to get into the cells, the body needs insulin. If you don’t have insulin or it doesn’t work right, your blood sugar will be high and you will pee out a lot of sugar. The sugary urine will pull in more water. This makes you pee a lot, which causes your body to lose water and makes you feel very thirsty.


This is primarily relevant for children. In some children, frequent urination and increased fluid intake can lead to new bedwetting, i.e. they start urinating in the bed at night. As an adult, your night’s sleep can be disturbed by the fact that you constantly have to get up to flush the toilet.

Weight loss, tiredness, and lethargic

Even though you feel hungry and eat, you will lose a lot of calories through your urine and be able to lose weight. Since your body can’t use the sugar in your blood, you’ll feel tired, sick, and maybe even sick and sick.

Changed vision

Over time, having high blood sugar can make it hard to see, most likely by making you nearsighted. This will return to normal as the disease is treated, but if you have had high blood sugar for a long time, it may take a long time.


When you have high blood sugar, you are more likely to get sick. This can show up as gingivitis, skin infections, or infections in the ear, nose, and throat area. Along with fungal infections in the crotch, the urinary tract and kidneys will also be more likely to get sick. This is because your normal flora is upset by the sugary urine.

Changed sensation in toes and feet

High blood sugar can hurt nerves, especially in the legs, but it can also hurt nerves in other parts of the body. This makes the nerves sick, which is called neuropathy. Over time, having high blood sugar can cause different kinds of neuropathy, which show up in different ways. This kind of nerve disease can cause both numbness and pain.

Poor wound healing

High blood sugar that builds up over time is frequently the cause of ulcers that heal slowly or not at all. Having enough nutrients in the blood is important for wound healing, among other things. High blood sugar can cut off blood flow, so wounds will take a long time to heal. If you have less feeling in your feet, you are also more likely to get ulcers. You will also have a greater chance of bacteria getting into your wounds.

Acid poisoning – ketoacidosis

Acid poisoning or ketoacidosis is a very bad sign of not having enough insulin. This happens when the body’s cells don’t have enough sugar to burn, so they start breaking down fatty acids to use as fuel. Ketones are a byproduct of this process, and they build up in the blood. Your breath smells different because of the ketones. It smells a bit like nail polish remover. In the worst case, the condition could kill the person if it is not treated.

Why is losing weight so important for type 2 diabetes?

By losing weight, people with type 2 diabetes can feel better and, in some cases, even be cured. Those who are affected shouldn’t punish themselves by starving themselves or going on crash diets. Only a healthy diet helps in the long run. There are a few easy rules to follow.

Everyone needs sugar to get energy to their body cells. When we eat carbs, our bodies break them down into sugar in the gut and send it to the blood. When the amount of sugar in the blood rises, the body makes insulin. With the help of this hormone, sugar in the blood can be sent to the muscle cells or temporarily stored in the liver. Insulin works like a key: it lets the sugar into the cells.

This mechanism is broken for people with type 2 diabetes. The insulin no longer works right in the cells, so they use less sugar. ” Insulin resistance” is the term for this. Because of this, the blood sugar level goes up, and the pancreas makes more and more insulin. 

The problem is that insulin not only lowers blood sugar, but it also turns extra sugar into fat around the belly. In turn, having too much belly fat makes insulin resistance worse. Because fat cells release hormones that make muscle cells and the liver less sensitive to insulin. The good news is that if the fat in the belly is cut down, the cells can once again respond better to insulin.

Lose weight with the three-meal principle.

You don’t have to starve yourself or give up fun in order to lose weight. Most people can lose weight by eating three healthy meals a day and cutting back on snacks like cookies, chocolate, and chips that are high in sugar and calories.

Eating only three times a day has a big benefit: when you go longer without eating, your blood sugar level drops. Because of this, less insulin is made. Since insulin is a hormone that makes you gain fat, having low levels of insulin helps break down fat.

In theory, even two meals a day could be enough. Intermittent fasting is a way for people with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. For instance, you might skip breakfast or dinner and give your stomach 16 hours to rest. Recent studies have shown that intermittent fasting is a good way to lose weight and has many other health benefits as well.

But this way of fasting isn’t good for people who are more likely to get low blood sugar. This risk is especially high for people who inject insulin or take sulfonylurea pills. Before starting intermittent fasting, people with diabetes should talk to their doctor to see if there are any health risks.

Lots of vegetables, few carbs, good fat

Nutritionists recommend the plate principle, which states that half of a plate should be covered with vegetables, a quarter with protein-rich products, and a maximum of a quarter with carbohydrates. Bread is allowed, but only with one meal, in the form of high-fiber whole grain bread.

The most important details are that if you want to lose weight, you should eat 500 grams of vegetables every day, including herbs, nuts, and low-fructose fruit. Sugar should be avoided as much as possible, especially in sodas and sweet juices. Apple juice contains at least as much sugar as cola, and ready-made products from the supermarket contain added sugar.

Oil can be used without guilt, but it should be the right one. Omega-3 fatty acids, such as those from rapeseed, linseed, and nut oils, are particularly recommended. Olive oil also has positive effects on health, but sunflower oil contains omega-6 fatty acids. Oatmeal can be used to combat insulin resistance, with 75 g of oat flakes boiled in water three times a day and smaller amounts of fruit, herbs, and vegetables.

Weight loss in small increments

If you want to lose weight, it makes sense that you would want to do it quickly. But this is even harder for people with diabetes than for healthy people, especially if they inject insulin or take medicine that makes insulin come out of their bodies more quickly. Because insulin makes it hard to lose fat.

Experts warn against expecting too much at once, as long-established eating habits cannot be changed overnight. Crash diets are discouraged, as pounds that are lost quickly are usually put back on. Patient people will be rewarded if they succeed in improving their diet over time.

Can you cure type 2 diabetes by losing weight?

Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with weight loss, according to a 2017 British DiRECT study. Almost half of participants were able to reduce their diabetes within a year, with 86 percent for those who lost 30 pounds. However, the effect is only permanent if you maintain a healthy lifestyle.

What role does sport play in weight loss?

Sport is beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes, improving blood sugar, blood pressure and lipid levels. However, it does not help with weight loss, as physical exertion leads to more hunger and appetite hormones being released, leading to more eating.

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