How does caffeine in coffee lower cholesterol?

Caffeine reduces the production of LDL cholesterol by affecting two proteins. Photo: File

Many benefits of coffee have been reported and more are emerging. Now experts have discovered the scientific reason for the unhealthy caffeine in coffee and other beverages, which lowers LDL cholesterol.

Scientists at McMaster University say that excessive consumption of caffeine reduces the amount of a type of protein in the blood called ‘PCSK-9’.

 This protein enters the liver and prevents it from eliminating bad LDL cholesterol. This does not increase the cholesterol which would otherwise accumulate in the arteries and lead to heart attack and stroke.

Senior scientist Dr. Richard Austin, who was involved in the research, said that another function of caffeine is to inhibit the activity of another protein called SREBP2 and this protein further reduces the production of PCSK-9. That is, caffeine prevents the formation of LDL in two ways.

In addition, SREPB2 protein directly and indirectly promotes a variety of diseases, including diabetes and fatty liver. But scientists warn that simply drinking coffee does not help. If you are mixing sugar and cream in it, then all the benefits can be lost. This minimizes the effectiveness of caffeine. Then the habit of soft drinks and sweet syrup makes everyone water.

However, excessive amounts of caffeine can be harmful to the body and that is why coffee consumption should be kept normal but it is possible to take a closer look at caffeine and take note of its active ingredients. You will be able to make an effective medicine by mixing them in a supplement. This drug will play an important role in lowering cholesterol worldwide.


Do you have these symptoms? Be sure to check your blood glucose. It could be pre-diabetes! What is the risk of high blood sugar?

Are you tired and don’t feel like doing anything? These could be symptoms of pre-diabetes! Be sure to check your blood glucose levels, as long-term disturbances in blood sugar levels lead to the development of diabetes with its serious complications. Find out what symptoms may indicate the development of pre-diabetes.

What is pre-diabetes?

Pre-diabetes is a disorder that signals that the level of glucose in your blood is abnormal. If left untreated, it most often leads to the development of type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, it is often underestimated by doctors, which contributes to the increased incidence of this disease. Pre-diabetes symptoms are alarm signals to change your lifestyle and take care of your health.

Currently, there are no clear guidelines on the precise criteria for diagnosing this disorder.  Pre-diabetes is defined as a situation where the blood glucose concentration is :

  • fasting – 100-125 mg / dl,
  • 60 minutes after oral glucose load (OGTT) – approx. 155 mg / dL,
  • 120 minutes after an oral glucose load – 140-199 mg / dL.

It is estimated that 5-10 percent. people with pre-diabetes will develop diabetes mellitus in just one year.

Long-term disturbances in blood glucose levels can significantly affect the well-being and increase the risk of developing not only diabetes, but also cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke. So it’s good to know how to recognize them.

How to detect pre-diabetes?

Pre-diabetes before the onset of “overt” diabetes may be very different for each person. Many doctors recommend the following tests to make an accurate diagnosis:

  • fasting glucose
  • OGGT, or glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load,
  • glycosylated hemoglobin , or HbA1C.

The causes of the development of pre-diabetes

The disorders that lead to the development of diabetes are mainly the result of unhealthy habits and lifestyle.

he main factors influencing the development of pre-diabetes include:

  • overweight and obesity,
  • lack of physical activity,
  • high-calorie diet rich in highly processed products,
  • abdominal obesity – waist circumference over 80 cm in women or 94 cm in men,
  • the occurrence of gestational diabetes,
  • having a child weighing more than 4 kg,
  • reduced HDL cholesterol below 40 mg / dl,
  • increased levels of triglycerides in the blood above 150 mg / dl,
  • hypertension,
  • genetic predisposition (diabetes in parents),
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.

To reduce excess body weight, waist circumference and normalize blood sugar levels, it is recommended to change your eating behavior and introduce regular, moderate-intensity physical activity.

Pre-diabetes treatment – how to protect yourself against the development of diabetes?

Prevention of pre-diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes. Its main elements are a balanced diet and moderate physical activity. Regular exercise helps to strengthen the body and effectively reduce body fat.

As Finnish scientists observed, weight loss by 5 percent. and moderate physical activity for 35-45 minutes a day can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by up to 75 percent.

In the prevention of diabetes, it is also necessary to change the diet. A balanced diet should provide all the necessary nutrients. In the case of obesity, it is recommended to reduce body weight gradually, by reducing the caloric value of the diet by about 500 kcal per day.

According to the Nurses’ Health Study, a weight loss of 5 kg in people with a predisposition to diabetes reduces the risk of its development by up to 50 percent.

What does the diet look like in the prevention of diabetes? First of all, it should be a balanced menu containing whole grains, which are a source of dietary fiber – incl. rye, wholemeal or graham bread, coarse grains, brown rice, wholemeal pasta. The menu must also include fruit and vegetables in the amount of at least 400 g per day, 3/4 of which should be vegetables.

However, it is worth eliminating from the diet:

  • alcohol,
  • simple carbohydrates such as sugar (sweets, confectionery, etc.),
  • fried and fast food dishes,
  • sweetened drinks
  • fried meat, especially in deep fat.
  • If lifestyle changes are not sufficient, your doctor may decide to initiate drug treatment.
  • Usually, the drug of first choice is metformin, which makes cells more sensitive to insulin and
  • lowers blood sugar.

While playing, the child learns a lot of skills. What toys support development?

Children learn and develop best through play, and the selection of appropriate toys can additionally support their development. In order for them to fulfill their role, several factors must be taken into account.

Contrary to popular belief, toys are not only for entertainment purposes. Thanks to them, children of all ages can develop the skills they will need at a given stage of their lives. Properly selected interactive toys have a positive effect on the motor skills of young children, while the older ones help to develop their imaginations and expand their knowledge about the world. Learning while playing is most effective because it is an interesting activity, not a chore. The article lists some examples of toys that particularly support a child’s development.

Educational mat

Educational mats for babies are very practical and multifunctional toys. They are a portable playground, they are an ideal space for exercising the child’s motor skills, enabling him to actively develop motor skills and providing the joy of discovering new stimuli. Children learn hand-eye coordination, lifting their heads, controlling hand movements, and understanding the relationship between cause and effect. There are many types of mats on the market with various elements that support the development of a baby, such as playing music boxes, safe mirrors or rattles. It is also a safe space for crawling.

Puzzles and jigsaws

On store shelves you will find many puzzles and puzzles that are adapted to the age of the child. They can be great entertainment for a baby as well as fun for the whole family. Puzzles train the brain perfectly, teach logical thinking and analytical activities. They also deepen the imagination. When arranging the little pieces, the child’s brain has to reach into working memory for information about colors and shapes. This activity also influences the development of the toddler’s manual skills. During play, children train motor skills, learn perceptiveness and patience.

Interactive books

Among the toys intended for small children, there should be interactive books with activating elements. Illustrations, different textures, shapes and textures stimulate the baby’s senses, with an emphasis on touch and eyesight. Interactive books require the child’s involvement, opening windows, moving individual elements, touching. They teach that each action brings effects, sharpens perceptiveness and develop cause-and-effect thinking. The subject of content intended for babies is also valuable. Among interactive books, you can find those that show various phenomena related to everyday life, e.g. housework, or the world around us, e.g. with animals and nature.

Interactive toys

Interactive toys teach the child to respond to various stimuli. For example, if a toddler presses a button, the toy may play, move or light up. Depending on the model, the toys can teach letters, numbers, shapes and colors. They also help children associate specific sounds with certain activities, objects or animals. These types develop a child’s curiosity and teach them basic knowledge about the world.

Construction set

Thanks to the blocks, children learn to grasp, their manual skills and motor skills increase. The play of matching different elements and shapes also supports creativity and the ability to think logically. Parents can choose a variety of bricks, smaller, larger, made of plastic or wood, to suit different age groups of children. You can play with blocks in many ways. Not only by building, but also sorting or counting, and larger sets of blocks allow you to play with other children. Activity in a group teaches how to cooperate and has a positive effect on the social abilities of the youngest.

Your retina can reveal mental health or disease

Thinning of the retina of the eye is a sign of cerebral palsy. Photo: File

New research on the eyes has revealed that the stripes on the back of the retina, a sensitive tissue that senses light in the eye, may be related to mental capacity and health.

The most important disease in this regard is Alzheimer’s which gradually destroys the mental capacity. The disease progresses quietly but it is too late when severe symptoms appear. However, the day is not far off when eye examination can predict the condition prematurely, which is a common and severe form of dementia.

According to Ashley Bert Young, a professor at the University of Otago in New Zealand, and her research colleagues, eye examinations can be used to diagnose mental illness, especially Alzheimer’s. According to him, mental condition and mental condition can be examined through the window of eyes.

Ten years ago, it was discovered that the retina of Alzheimer’s patients tends to get thinner and thinner. Then, in 2018, it was discovered that Alzheimer’s has three eye conditions, including cataracts and aging-related blindness or AMD.

The University of Otago began the study in the 1970s. One thousand babies born in the 70’s were enrolled in the study. All the children had their eyes opened in the same hospital. Now, 50 years later, 865 adults have been examined who underwent various eye scans at the age of 45. In addition, all participants underwent other eye tests.

In the final examination, the thickness of the layers of retina and ganglion cells of all participants was carefully noted. Now, those who had thin retinas performed poorly in the brain and acquisition tests, that is, even in adolescence and even in childhood, they were behind others in these tests.

But retinal detachment has not been linked to overall cerebral palsy. All the children were mentally retarded at an early age. But statistical analysis has shown that the abnormal decrease in retinal thickness indicates that there is some reduction in brain, mental and cognitive capacity.

However, scientists have stressed the need for further research and more extensive studies will be carried out in the next phase.

Using the glycemic index

Different carbohydrate-containing foods affect blood glucose differently — an effect quantified by measures known as the glycemic index and glycemic load.

The glycemic index (GI) assigns a numeric score to a food based on the rise in blood sugar after eating a standard amount (50 grams) compared with the rise after eating 50 grams of pure glucose. Foods are ranked on a scale of 0 to 100, with pure glucose given a value of 100.

The lower a food’s glycemic index, the slower and lower blood sugar rises after eating that food. A glycemic index of 55 or below is considered low; 70 or above is considered high. In general, the more cooked or processed a food is, the higher its GI, and the more fiber or fat in a food, the lower the GI.

The glycemic index tells just part of the story because it indicates only how fast a particular carbohydrate-rich food raises blood sugar. What it doesn’t tell you is how high your blood sugar could go when you actually eat the food, which is partly determined by how much carbohydrate is in a serving of a particular food. To understand a food’s complete effect on blood sugar, you need to know both how quickly it makes glucose enter the bloodstream and how much glucose it can deliver.

Understanding glycemic load

A separate measure called the glycemic load gives a more accurate picture of a food’s real-life impact on blood sugar. The glycemic load is determined by multiplying the grams of carbohydrate in a serving by the glycemic index and dividing by 100. A glycemic load of 10 or below is considered low; 20 or above is considered high. Watermelon, for example, has a high glycemic index (80). But a serving of watermelon has so little carbohydrate (6 grams) that its glycemic load is only 5.

Some nutrition experts believe that people with diabetes should pay attention to the glycemic index and glycemic load to avoid sudden spikes in blood sugar. A review by the Cochrane Collaboration (an international group of health authorities who evaluate evidence from randomized clinical trials) found that people who followed a low-GI diet lowered their HbA1c levels by 0.5 percentage point — and they were also less likely to experience hypoglycemia. To put that effect into perspective, the FDA considers a drop in HbA1c of as little as 0.4 of a percentage point to be meaningful when assessing drugs to treat diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association acknowledges the value of the glycemic index and glycemic load, saying that “substituting low-glycemic-load foods for higher-glycemic-load foods may modestly improve” blood sugar control. But it also says that the total amount of carbohydrate in a food, rather than the food’s glycemic index or load, is a stronger predictor of what will happen to blood sugar. Some dietitians feel that focusing on the glycemic index and glycemic load adds an unneeded layer of complexity to choosing what to eat. The bottom line? Following the principles of low-glycemic-index eating is likely to be beneficial, as it essentially encourages a high-fiber diet that is moderate in carbohydrates, but reaching and staying at a healthy weight is more important for your blood sugar and your overall health.

4 principles of low-glycemic eating

  • Eat non-starchy vegetables, beans, and fruits such as apples, pears, peaches, and berries. Even tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas tend to have a lower glycemic index than typical desserts.
  • Eat grains in the least-processed state possible: “unbroken” grains such as whole barley, millet, wheat berries, brown rice, and whole-kernel bread; or traditionally processed grains such as stone-ground whole-grain bread, steel-cut oats, and natural granola or muesli breakfast cereal.
  • Cut back or cut out white potatoes and refined grain products such as white breads, bagels, pastries, and regular pasta.
  • Let concentrated sweets — including high-calorie foods with a low glycemic index, such as ice cream — be an occasional treat instead of a staple. Don’t drink more than one-half cup of fruit juice a day. Completely eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks.

    — Adapted from Ending the Food Fight by David Ludwig with Suzanne Rostler (Houghton Mifflin, 2008).

To look up the GI values for a wide range of foods, visit

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Eating Plum(Aloo Bukhara) is good for bone health especially in women

This was revealed in a new medical study – shutter stock photo

In summer, many fruits are found in the markets, most of which people also like and one such fruit is plum(Aloo Bukhara).

But aloe vera is also available in dry season in all seasons and it is also very beneficial for health if eaten in moderation.

It is believed to be very good for digestion but it is also good for bone health.

This was revealed in a new medical study conducted in the United States.

Research from Penn State University has found that eating plums can help prevent bone loss in women.

Probably a factor as to why they’re doing so poorly is to reduce the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress.

The study found that a decrease in the levels of a hormone called estrogen in middle-aged women increases oxidative stress and inflammation, which increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Research has shown that adding prunes to the diet may help protect the bones by reversing or slowing down the process.

The researchers said that the problem of osteoporosis or osteoporosis can affect people of any age, but it is more common in women over the age of 50.

It is estimated that more than 200 million women worldwide suffer from it and about 9 million fractures occur each year.

Medications are available to treat it, but researchers say more attention is now being paid to its treatment through diet.

“Vegetables and fruits are rich in biological compounds such as phenolic acid, flavonoids and carotenes that can protect against osteoporosis,” he said.

He said that after the age of 40, the process of elimination of old bone cells and formation of new cells slows down due to various factors including inflammation and oxidative stress.

Research has shown that aloe vera is good for health due to its minerals, vitamin K, phenolic compounds and dietary fiber, and it helps counteract some of the side effects.

The study analyzed data from a number of research reports and found evidence that eating this fruit reduces inflammation and oxidative stress while improving bone health.

For example, clinical trials have found that eating 100 grams of prunes a day (dried or fresh) up to a salad improves the density of the elbow and lower spine.

Similarly, eating 50 to 100 grams of plums daily for 6 months prevents loss of bone volume.

The results of the study were published in the medical journal Journal Advances in Nutrition.

According to a study by Florida State University in the United States a few years ago , dried plums may be helpful in reversing the disease of osteoporosis.

Its anti-inflammatory properties also make it beneficial for people suffering from arthritis.

Healthy people can eat it and make their bones 20% stronger.

Obesity caused the brain to age faster says research

Excess fat in obese people affects not only their body but also their mind. (Photo: Internet)

Obesity not only increases the risk of heart disease, but also causes the brain to age faster, according to a new study from Canada.

The study looked at more than 9,000 Canadians between the ages of 50 and 66, with an average age of about 58.

Of those who were overweight or obese, the expected risk of various cardiovascular diseases was higher than those of normal weight.

However, when these people were tested for memory and acquisition (learning abilities), the scores of obese people were found to be significantly lower than those of normal weight.

Lack of memory and acquisition in obese people showed that excess fat was affecting not only their body but also their mind.

For this reason, the mental age of obese people was many years older than their physical age, that is, they began to age prematurely.

In the light of this research, experts say that people with obesity should pay more attention to their physical activities, especially walking, as this would improve blood flow in the body.

As a result, the amount of blood reaching the brain increases and the health of the brain improves, which reduces the effects of aging on the brain.

Note: This research, led by experts from McMaster University, Ontario, has been published in the latest issue of the online research journal JAMA Open Network .

Is it beneficial to use fruits and vegetables or their juices?

Vegetables and fruits are very good for health and their consumption can reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer.

But some people like to drink fruits and vegetables in the form of juice to cleanse the body or add more nutrients to the diet.

Is it  better to eat fruits and vegetables in their solid form or juice? Know what medical science has to say about it.

The purpose of juices
Fruits or vegetables are usually used in the form of juice for 2 purposes.

Some people believe that the use of juice ensures the release of toxins from the body, but there is no evidence to support this view.

The second purpose is to use fruits as a supplement in the daily diet to increase the use of nutrients in fruits and vegetables.

Juice is an easy way to get more nutrition
The fact is that most people do not like fruits and vegetables in particular, so it is difficult to get adequate amounts of nutrients.

Polluted environments and high levels of stress also increase the need for certain nutrients.

Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and plant compounds which can also provide protection against various diseases.

If you find it difficult to get the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables in your daily diet, then juices can be an easy way to get it.

One study found that using a combination of fruit and vegetable juices for 14 weeks increased people’s levels of beta-carotene, vitamin C, E, selenium and folate.

Another study found that drinking fresh fruit and vegetable juices improved folate and antioxidant levels.

But do juices protect against disease?
There is ample evidence that eating fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of disease, but it is difficult to find research reports that show the benefits of fruit and vegetable juices.

Part of the benefits of fruits and vegetables are the amount of antioxidants they contain, but fiber also plays an important role.

Most antioxidants bind to fiber and are released into the digestive system, which is why eating large amounts of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for most health aspects.

While juices may reduce the risk of heart disease to some extent, apple and pomegranate juices are thought to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

In addition, drinking fruit and vegetable juices in liquid form can potentially reduce oxidative stress, which in turn improves heart health.

But despite these findings, more research is needed to better understand the medical effects of juices.

Using juices for weight loss is not a good idea
Most people prefer juices for weight loss.

The Juice Diet consumes 600 to 1,000 calories per day, mostly in the form of juices, which can lead to severe calorie loss and rapid weight loss.

But it is very difficult to maintain this weight loss for more than a few days as it slows down the metabolism on a long term basis and also leads to nutrient deficiencies.

That is, juice is not a substitute for food and can be destructive to the body.

Disadvantages of juices
Excessive consumption of fruit juices has been linked to an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

Similarly, there is no evidence that our body needs liquid food for internal cleansing, our body is designed to automatically clean toxic substances.

People with kidney problems may also have an increased risk of kidney failure if they consume large amounts of juices.

Juices are very sweet
Your choice of juice is important and fruits contain more sugar than vegetables.

Consumption of large amounts of natural sugars also increases the risk of high blood sugar, weight gain and type 2 diabetes.

For example, 100% pure juice of 114 mg apples has almost zero fiber content but 13 grams of natural sugar and 60 calories.

The same amount of 100% pure grape juice contains 20 grams of sugar.

So vegetable juices can be tried to keep the amount of sugar low.

So it is better to use fruits and vegetables than juices
Juices usually lose the fiber in fruits and vegetables and this nutrient is very important for the body.

The antioxidants that are naturally attached to plant fibers are lost in the process of making juices, which is why the use of whole fruits and vegetables can be more important for health.

Similarly, 90% of the fiber is lost during juice making.

The benefits of fiber
High fiber intake reduces the risk of heart disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Research reports have shown that increasing the use of soluble fiber improves blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

One study compared the group of people who ate apples to those who drank apple juice.

The study found that people who drank apple juice had a 6.9% increase in harmful cholesterol levels compared to those who ate the fruit, due to the fiber in the fruit.

One study found that those who drank fruit juice had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while those who ate fruit had a lower risk.

More than one third of people who recovered from covid-19 are at risk for developing different symptoms for a long time – A study

A medical study conducted in Switzerland has revealed that four out ten of people recovered from covid-19 developed different symptoms which may last for months. 

The study included 410 people diagnosed with Covid-19, but the severity of the disease was not high enough to require hospitalization. 

39% of them reported various symptoms 7 to 9 months after defeating the disease. Most of them reported fatigue after recovery. 20.7% reported loss of smell and 11.7% reported difficulty in breathing. 10% recovered people reported headache after recovery.  

 Among these, fatigue was the most common symptom of long-cod, followed by 20.7%, followed by loss of sense of smell (16.8%), difficulty breathing (11.7%) and headache (10%).  Were the most symptomatic.

Researchers has found that women are more likely to develop these symptoms than.  They also notice these symptoms can develop in people of all ages, including young and healthy. 

 Research has found that women are more likely than men to have symptoms of long-term symptoms such as fatigue, breathing problems and pain.

 The study also found that long codes can affect people of all ages, including young and healthy people.

According to research, the severity of long-term symptoms is mild to moderate, but they can affect quality of life.

 Research has shown that people who were in good health before the covid-19. But their health was not good after defeating the disease.

 The results of the study were published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.

 Earlier, in June 2021, a study by the University of Bergen in Norway found that young people who defeated Covid-19 were also at risk of developing long-term illness.

 The study included 312 Covid-19 patients between the ages of 16 and 30 with mild to severe disease condition.

 These people were infected with Covid-19 during the first wave of Corona in Norway. 247 people were treated at home and 65 were hospitalized.

 The study found that six months after the attack of the disease, symptoms persisted in 61% of people.

Most of these persons reported loss of smell or taste, fatigue, difficulty in breathing, difficulty in concentrating and faced memory problems. 

Researchers noticed in their study that 50 percent of young over the age of 30 had symptoms even after six months.

 It was found during the study people who were isolated at home had higher levels of antibodies and continued symptoms like asthma, or chronic lung diseases. 

 The study found that 30 percent of patients at home with Covid-19 had developed symptom of fatigue.

 Researchers say that memory impairment and difficulty concentrating are alarming symptoms for young people studying in colleges or universities.

They stressed the need for the importance of vaccination to prevent the long-term adverse affect on health of victums of Covid-19.

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